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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, DC. 20549

FORM 20-F
 
(Mark One)
REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR (g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
OR 
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934.
 
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020
OR 
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
OR 
SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
Date of event requiring this shell company report  _______________________________

Commission file number000-29106
  

Golden Ocean Group Limited
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
 
(Translation of Registrant's name into English)
 
Bermuda
(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
 
Par-la-Ville Place, 14 Par-la-Ville Road, Hamilton, Bermuda, HM 08
(Address of principal executive offices)
 
James Ayers, Telephone: (1) 441 2956935, Facsimile: (1) 441 295 3494,
Par-la-Ville Place, 14 Par-la-Ville Road, Hamilton, HM 08, Bermuda
(Name, Telephone, E-mail and/or Facsimile number and Address of Company Contact Person)

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act
Title of each classTrading SymbolName of each exchange on which registered
Common Shares, Par Value $0.05 Per ShareGOGLNASDAQ Global Select Market

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act.
None
(Title of Class)

Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act.
None
(Title of Class)




Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer's classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report.

143,327,697 Common Shares, Par Value $0.05 Per Share

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
Yes o
No x

If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.
Yes o
No x

Note – Checking the box above will not relieve any registrant required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 from their obligations under those Sections.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
Yes x
No o

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).
Yes  x
No o

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or an emerging growth company. See definition of "large accelerated filer", "accelerated filer", and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.:

Large accelerated filer  o
Accelerated filer  x
Non-accelerated filer  o
Emerging growth company  

If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards† provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐
† The term ''new or revised financial accounting standard'' refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management's assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. x

Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:
U.S. GAAP x
International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board o
Other o

If "Other" has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow:
Item 17 o
Item 18 o




If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).
Yes ☐
No




INDEX TO REPORT ON FORM 20-F


  PAGE
 
  
 
 
 
 
 
 




CAUTIONARY STATEMENT REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS AND SUMMARY OF RISK FACTORS

Matters discussed in this annual report may constitute forward-looking statements. The Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 (the "PSLRA"), provides safe harbor protections for forward-looking statements in order to encourage companies to provide prospective information about their business. Forward-looking statements include statements concerning plans, objectives, goals, strategies, future events or performance, and underlying assumptions and other statements, which are other than statements of historical facts.
We are taking advantage of the safe harbor provisions of the PSLRA and are including this cautionary statement in connection therewith. This document and any other written or oral statements made by us or on our behalf may include forward-looking statements, which reflect our current views with respect to future events and financial performance. This annual report includes assumptions, expectations, projections, intentions and beliefs about future events. These statements are intended as "forward-looking statements." We caution that assumptions, expectations, projections, intentions and beliefs about future events may and often do vary from actual results and the differences can be material. When used in this document, the words "believe," "expect," "anticipate," "estimate," "intend," "plan," "targets," "projects," "likely," "will," "would," "could," "seeks," "potential," "continue," "contemplate," "possible," "might," "forecasts," "may," "should" and similar expressions or phrases may identify forward-looking statements.
The forward-looking statements in this report are based upon various assumptions, many of which are based, in turn, upon further assumptions, including without limitation, management's examination of historical operating trends, data contained in our records and other data available from third parties. Although we believe that these assumptions were reasonable when made, because these assumptions are inherently subject to significant uncertainties and contingencies which are difficult or impossible to predict and are beyond our control, we cannot assure you that we will achieve or accomplish these expectations, beliefs or projections. As a result, you are cautioned not to rely on any forward-looking statements.
In addition to these important factors and matters discussed elsewhere herein, important factors that, in our view, could cause actual results to differ materially from those discussed in the forward-looking statements include among other things:

general market trends in the dry bulk industry, which is cyclical and volatile, including fluctuations in charter hire rates and vessel values;
a decrease in the market value of our vessels;
changes in supply and demand in the dry bulk shipping industry, including the market for our vessels and the number of newbuildings under construction;
an oversupply of dry bulk vessels which may depress charter rates and profitability;
our future operating or financial results;
our continued borrowing availability under our debt agreements and compliance with the covenants contained therein;
our ability to procure or have access to financing, our liquidity and the adequacy of cash flows for our operations;
the failure of our contract counterparties to meet their obligations, including changes in credit risk with respect to our counterparties on contracts;
the loss of a large customer or significant business relationship;
the strength of world economies;
the volatility of prevailing spot market and charter-hire charter rates, which may negatively affect our earnings;
our ability to successfully employ our dry bulk vessels and replace our operating leases on favorable terms, or at all;
the success and profitability of the pools in which our vessels operate;
changes in our operating expenses and voyage costs, including bunker prices, fuel prices (including increased costs for low sulfur fuel), drydocking, crewing and insurance costs;
the adequacy of our insurance to cover our losses, including in the case of a vessel collision;
vessel breakdowns and instances of off-hire;
our ability to fund future capital expenditures and investments in the construction, acquisition and refurbishment of our vessels (including the amount and nature thereof and the timing of completion of vessels under construction, the delivery and commencement of operation dates, expected downtime and lost revenue);
risks associated with any future vessel construction or the purchase of second-hand vessels;
our expectations regarding the availability of vessel acquisitions and our ability to complete acquisition transactions planned, including the Vessel Acquisition (defined later);
the potential for technological innovation in the sectors in which we operate to reduce the value of our vessels and charter income derived therefrom;
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the failure to protect our information technology and communications system against security breaches or the failure or unavailability of these systems for a significant period of time;
potential liability from safety, environmental, governmental and other requirements and potential significant additional expenditures (by us and our customers) related to complying with such regulations;
the withdrawal of the U.K. from the European Union and the potential negative effect on global economic conditions and financial markets;
changes in governmental rules and regulations or actions taken by regulatory authorities and the impact of government inquiries and investigations;
the arrest of our vessels by maritime claimants;
government requisition of our vessels during a period of war or emergency;
our compliance with complex laws, regulations, including environmental laws and regulations and the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977;
potential difference in interests between or among certain members of our board of directors, executive officers, senior management and shareholders;
our ability to attract, retain and motivate key employees;
work stoppages or other labor disruptions by our employees or the employees of other companies in related industries;
potential exposure or loss from investment in derivative instruments;
stability of Europe and the Euro or the inability of countries to refinance their debts;
fluctuations in interest rates and foreign exchange rates;
acts of piracy on ocean-going vessels, public health threats, terrorist attacks and international hostilities and political instability;
potential disruption of shipping routes due to accidents or political events;
general domestic and international political and geopolitical conditions or events, including any further changes in U.S. trade policy that could trigger retaliatory actions by affected countries;
the impact of adverse weather and natural disasters;
the impact of increasing scrutiny and changing expectations from investors, lenders and other market participants with respect to our Environmental, Social and Governance ("ESG") policies;
changes in seaborne and other transportation;
the length and severity of epidemics and pandemics, including the ongoing global outbreak of COVID-19 ("COVID-19") and governmental responses thereto and the impact on the demand for seaborne transportation in the dry bulk sector;
dependence on the ability of our subsidiaries to distribute funds to satisfy financial obligations;
fluctuations in the contributions of our joint ventures to our profits and losses;
the potential for shareholders to not be able to bring a suit against us or enforce a judgement obtained against us in the United States;
our treatment as a “passive foreign investment company” by U.S. tax authorities;
being required to pay taxes on U.S. source income;
our operations being subject to economic substance requirements;
the impact of the discontinuance of the London Interbank Offered Rate ("LIBOR"), after 2021 on interest rates of our debt that reference LIBOR;
the volatility of the stock price for our common shares, from which investors could incur substantial losses, and the future sale of our common shares, which could cause the market price of our common shares to decline; and
other factors discussed in "Item 3. Key Information D. Risk Factors." in this annual report.

We caution readers of this report not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements, which speak only as of their dates. Except to the extent required by applicable law or regulation, we undertake no obligation to release publicly any revisions to these forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date of this annual report or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events. These forward-looking statements are not guarantees of our future performance, and actual results and future developments may vary materially from those projected in the forward-looking statements.


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PART I

ITEM 1.  IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISERS

Not applicable.

ITEM 2.  OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE

Not applicable.

ITEM 3.  KEY INFORMATION

On October 7, 2014, Knightsbridge Shipping Limited, (''Knightsbridge''), and Golden Ocean Group Limited, (''Former Golden Ocean''), entered into an agreement and plan of merger ("the Merger Agreement"), pursuant to which the two companies agreed to merge ("the Merger"), with Knightsbridge serving as the surviving legal entity. The Merger was completed on March 31, 2015, and the name of Knightsbridge was changed to Golden Ocean Group Limited. The Merger has been accounted for as a business combination using the acquisition method of accounting, with us selected as the accounting acquirer. See "Item 4. Information on the Company - A. History and Development of the Company" for more information.

Throughout this report, unless the context otherwise requires, "Golden Ocean," the "Company," "we," "us" and "our" refer to Golden Ocean Group Limited and its subsidiaries.

The term deadweight ton ("dwt"), is used in describing the capacity or size of vessels. Dwt, expressed in metric tons, each of which is equivalent to 1,000 kilograms, refers to the maximum weight of cargo and supplies that a vessel can carry.

We own and operate dry bulk vessels of the following sizes:

Newcastlemax, which are vessels with carrying capacities of between 200,000 dwt and 210,000 dwt;
Capesize, which are vessels with carrying capacities of between 105,000 dwt and 200,000 dwt;
Panamax, which are vessels with carrying capacities of between 65,000 and 105,000 dwt; and
Ultramax, which are vessels with carrying capacities of between 55,000 and 65,000 dwt.

Unless otherwise indicated, all references to "USD", "US$" and "$" in this report are to, and amounts are presented in, U.S. dollars.

A.  SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

Our selected statement of operations data with respect to the fiscal years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, and our selected balance sheet data as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, have been derived from our consolidated financial statements included herein and should be read in conjunction with such statements and the notes thereto. The selected balance sheet data as of December 31, 2018 have been derived from our consolidated financial statements not included herein.

On January 1, 2020, we adopted ASU No 2016-13, Financial Instruments-Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments, using a modified retrospective approach. The standard revised guidance for the accounting for credit losses on financial instruments within its scope. The standard added an impairment model known as the current expected credit loss model that is based on expected losses rather than incurred losses. The new guidance is applicable to financial assets measured at amortized cost, including trade receivables, contract assets such as voyages in progress and other, as well as related party receivables. In November 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-19, Financial Instruments – Credit losses (ASC 326), which clarifies that operating lease receivables are not within the scope of ASC 326 and should instead be accounted for under the new leasing standard, ASC 842. Expected credit losses are estimated using historical experience, information relating to current conditions and reasonable and supportable cash flows. The implementation of the standard did not have any material effect on our consolidated financial statements. Refer to Note 3 of "Item 18. Financial Statements" for additional information related to the adoption of this standard.

On January 1, 2019, we adopted ASC 842 Leases which revises the accounting for leases. We adopted the accounting standard using the modified retrospective transition approach, which allowed us to recognize a cumulative effect adjustment to the
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opening balance of accumulated deficit in the period of adoption rather than restate our comparative prior year periods. Refer to Note 2 of "Item 18. Financial Statements" for additional information related to the adoption of this standard.

We adopted the provisions of ASC 606 Revenue from Contracts with Customers on January 1, 2018 using the modified retrospective approach.

For our Selected Financial Data for financial years 2017 and 2016, we refer to "Item 3. Key Information-A. Selected Financial Data" included in our annual report on Form 20-F for the year ended December 31, 2019, which was filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission on March 12, 2020.

The following table should also be read in conjunction with "Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects" and the consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included herein. Our accounts are maintained in U.S. dollars.


 Fiscal year ended December 31,
 202020192018
(in thousands of $, except shares, per share data and ratios)
Statement of Operations Data: 
Total operating revenues607,943 705,799 656,070 
Total operating expenses672,570 603,973 514,308 
Net operating (loss) income (61,662)100,656 145,013 
Net income (loss) (137,669)37,189 84,535 
Earnings (loss) per share: basic ($)($0.96)$0.26 $0.59 
Earnings (loss) per share: diluted ($)($0.96)$0.26 $0.59 
Dividends per share ($)$0.05 $0.33 $0.45 
Balance Sheet Data (at end of year):
Cash and cash equivalents153,093 153,060 362,071 
Short term restricted cash22,009 10,184 534 
Long term restricted cash — 10,000 
Vessels and equipment, net2,267,686 2,340,753 2,406,456 
Finance leases, right of use assets, net113,480 193,987 1,165 
Operating leases, right of use assets, net22,739 54,853 — 
Total assets2,721,067 2,966,057 2,951,354 
Current portion of long-term debt87,831 87,787 471,764 
Current portion of obligations under finance lease23,475 17,502 5,649 
Current portion of obligations under operating lease16,783 14,377 — 
Long-term debt957,652 1,026,083 877,278 
Obligations under finance lease127,730 151,206 1,786 
Obligations under operating lease25,254 42,010 — 
Share capital7,215 7,215 7,215 
Total equity1,368,756 1,513,391 1,523,512 
Common shares outstanding143,327,697 143,277,697 143,827,697 
Other Financial Data:
Equity to assets ratio (percentage) (1)
50.3 %51.0 %51.6 %
Debt to equity ratio (2)
0.9 0.8 0.9 
Price earnings ratio (3)
(4.8)22.4 10.4 
Time charter equivalent income (4)
426,372 536,604 513,960 
Time charter equivalent rate (5)
13,466 16,779 16,530 

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(1)Equity to assets ratio is calculated as total equity divided by total assets.
(2)Debt to equity ratio is calculated as total interest bearing current and long-term liabilities divided by total equity.
(3)Price earnings ratio is calculated using the year end share price divided by basic (loss) earnings per share.
(4)A reconciliation of time charter equivalent income ("TCE income"), to total operating revenues as reflected in the consolidated statements of operation is as follows: 

(in thousands of $)202020192018
Total operating revenues607,943 705,799 656,070 
Add: Amortization of favorable charter party contracts12,148 18,732 18,733 
Add: Other operating income2,965 (1,170)2,991 
Less: Other revenues2,140 1,669 1,797 
Net time and voyage charter revenues620,916 721,692 675,997 
Less: Voyage expenses & commission194,544 185,088 162,037 
Time charter equivalent income426,372 536,604 513,960 

Consistent with general practice in the shipping industry, we use TCE income as a measure to compare revenue generated from a voyage charter to revenue generated from a time charter. We define TCE income as operating revenues less voyage expenses and commission plus amortization of time charter party out contracts. Under time charter agreements, voyage costs, such as bunker fuel, canal and port charges and commissions, are borne and paid by the charterer whereas under voyage charter agreements, voyage costs are borne and paid by the owner. TCE income is a common shipping industry performance measure used primarily to compare period-to-period changes in a shipping company’s performance despite changes in the mix of charter types (i.e., spot charters and time charters) under which the vessels may be employed between the periods. TCE income, a non-U.S. GAAP measure, provides additional meaningful information in conjunction with operating revenues, the most directly comparable U.S. GAAP measure, because it assists management in making decisions regarding the deployment and use of our vessels and in evaluating their financial performance, regardless of whether a vessel has been employed on a time charter or a voyage charter. For further information regarding the fleet deployment, refer to "Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects - A. Operating Results."

(5)Time charter equivalent rate ("TCE rate"), represents the weighted average daily TCE income of our entire operating fleet.

(in thousands of $, except for TCE Rate and days)202020192018
Time charter equivalent income426,372 536,604 513,960 
Fleet available days32,867 32,872 31,356 
Fleet offhire days(1,204)(892)(264)
Fleet onhire days31,663 31,980 31,092 
Time charter equivalent rate13,466 16,779 16,530 

TCE rate is a measure of the average daily income performance, following alignment of the revenue streams resulting from operation of the vessels under voyage or spot charters and time charters, as detailed in footnote 5 above. Our method of calculating TCE rate is determined by dividing TCE income by onhire days during a reporting period. Onhire days are calculated on a vessel by vessel basis and represent the net of available days and offhire days for each vessel (owned or chartered in) in our possession during a reporting period. Available days for a vessel during a reporting period is the number of days the vessel (owned or chartered in) is in our possession during the period. By definition, available days for an owned vessel equal the calendar days during a reporting period, unless the vessel is delivered by the yard during the relevant period whereas; available days for a chartered-in vessel equal the tenure in days of the underlying time charter agreement, pro-rated to the relevant reporting period if such tenure overlaps more than one reporting periods. Offhire days for a vessel during a reporting period is the number of days the vessel is in our possession during the period but is not operational as a result of unscheduled repairs, scheduled dry docking or special or intermediate surveys and lay-ups, if any.


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B.  CAPITALIZATION AND INDEBTEDNESS

Not applicable.

C.  REASONS FOR THE OFFER AND USE OF PROCEEDS

Not applicable.

D. RISK FACTORS

The following summarizes the risks that may materially affect our business, financial condition or results of operations. The occurrence of any of the events described in this section could significantly and negatively affect our business, financial condition, operating results or the trading price of our securities.

Risks Related to Our Industry

Charter hire rates for dry bulk vessels are volatile, have fluctuated significantly the past years and may decrease below our break-even rates in the future, which may adversely affect our earnings, revenues and profitability and our ability to comply with our loan covenants.

Substantially all of our revenues are derived from a single market, the dry bulk segment, and therefore our financial results depend on chartering activities and developments in this segment. The dry bulk shipping industry is cyclical with attendant volatility in charter hire rates and profitability. The dry bulk charter market, from which we derive and plan to continue to derive our revenues, has only recently begun to recover after experiencing a prolonged period of historically low rates. The degree of charter hire rate volatility among different types of dry bulk vessels has varied widely, and time charter and spot market rates for dry bulk vessels have in the recent past declined below operating costs of vessels.

Fluctuations in charter rates result from changes in the supply and demand for vessel capacity and changes in the supply and demand for the major commodities carried on water internationally. Because the factors affecting the supply and demand for vessels are outside of our control and are unpredictable, the nature, timing, direction and degree of changes in charter rates are also unpredictable. Since we charter our vessels principally in the spot market, we are exposed to the cyclicality and volatility of the spot market. Spot market charter hire rates may fluctuate significantly based upon available charters and the supply of and demand for seaborne shipping capacity, and we may be unable to keep our vessels fully employed in these short-term markets. Alternatively, charter rates available in the spot market may be insufficient to enable our vessels to operate profitably. A significant decrease in charter rates would also affect asset values and adversely affect our profitability, cash flows and our ability to pay dividends.

Furthermore, a significant decrease in charter rates would cause asset values to decline and we may have to record an impairment charge in our consolidated financial statements which could adversely affect our financial results. In 2020 we have recorded an impairment loss of $94.2 million on our leased assets equal to the difference between the asset's carrying value and fair value, which has been recorded as a result of an impairment review performed on an asset by asset basis. Further, because the market value of our vessels may fluctuate significantly, we may also incur losses when we sell vessels, which may adversely affect our earnings. If we sell vessels at a time when vessel prices have fallen and before we have recorded an impairment adjustment to our financial statements, the sale may be at less than the vessel's carrying amount in our financial statements, resulting in a loss and a reduction in earnings. For instance, during the year ended December 31, 2020, we recorded impairment losses of $0.7 million, related to sale of vessel. During the year ended December 31, 2018, we recorded impairment losses of $1.1 million, related to sale of vessels. There were no sales of vessels in 2019.

Factors that influence demand for vessel capacity include:

supply of and demand for energy resources, commodities, and semi-finished and finished consumer and industrial products;
changes in the exploration or production of energy resources, commodities, and semi-finished and finished consumer and industrial products;
the location of regional and global exploration, production and manufacturing facilities;
the location of consuming regions for energy resources, commodities, and semi-finished and finished consumer and industrial products;
the globalization of production and manufacturing;
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global and regional economic and political conditions and developments, including armed conflicts and terrorist activities, trade wars, tariffs, embargoes and strikes;
disruptions and developments in international trade, such as resulted from the dam collapse in Brazil in 2019;
changes in seaborne and other transportation patterns, including the distance cargo is transported by sea;
environmental and other regulatory developments;
currency exchange rates, most importantly versus USD;
pandemics, such as the COVID-19 outbreak;
natural disasters and weather; and
diseases and viruses, affecting livestock and humans.

Demand for our dry bulk oceangoing vessels is dependent upon economic growth in the world's economies, seasonal and regional changes in demand, changes in the capacity of the global dry bulk fleet and the sources and supply of dry bulk cargo transported by sea. The capacity of the global dry bulk vessels fleet seems likely to increase and economic growth may not resume in areas that have experienced a recession or continue in other areas. As such, adverse economic, political, social or other developments could have a material adverse effect on our business and operating results.

Factors that influence the supply of vessel capacity include:
number of newbuilding orders and deliveries;
the number of shipyards and ability of shipyards to deliver vessels;
port and canal congestion;
scrapping of older vessels;
speed of vessel operation;
vessel casualties;
the degree of recycling of older vessels, depending, among other things, on recycling rates and international recycling
regulations;
number of vessels that are out of service, namely those that are laid-up, dry docked, awaiting repairs or otherwise not available for hire;
availability of financing for new vessels and shipping activity;
changes in national or international regulations that may effectively cause reductions in the carrying capacity of vessels or early obsolescence of tonnage; and
changes in environmental and other regulations that may limit the useful lives of vessels.

In addition to the prevailing and anticipated freight rates, factors that affect the rate of newbuilding, scrapping and laying-up include newbuilding prices, secondhand vessel values in relation to scrap prices, costs of bunkers and other operating costs, costs associated with classification society surveys, normal maintenance costs, insurance coverage costs, the efficiency and age profile of the existing dry bulk fleet in the market, and government and industry regulation of maritime transportation practices, particularly environmental protection laws and regulations. These factors influencing the supply of and demand for shipping capacity are outside of our control, and we may not be able to correctly assess the nature, timing and degree of changes in industry conditions.
Global economic conditions may negatively impact the dry bulk shipping industry.
In the current global economy, operating businesses are faced with tightening credit, weak demand for goods and services, and weak international liquidity conditions. There has similarly been a general decline in the willingness by banks and other financial institutions to extend credit, particularly in the shipping industry, due to the historically volatile asset values of vessels. As the shipping industry is highly dependent on the availability of credit to finance and expand operations, it has been negatively affected by this decline. In particular, lower demand for dry bulk cargoes as well as diminished trade credit available for the delivery of such cargoes have historically led to decreased demand for dry bulk vessels, creating downward pressure on charter rates and vessel values. Any weakening in global economic conditions may have a number of adverse consequences for dry bulk and other shipping sectors, including, among other things:
low charter rates, particularly for vessels employed on short-term time charters or in the spot market;
decreases in the market value of dry bulk vessels and limited second-hand market for the sale of vessels;
limited financing for vessels;
widespread loan covenant defaults; and
declaration of bankruptcy by certain vessel operators, vessel owners, shipyards and charterers.
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The occurrence of one or more of these events could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows, financial condition and ability to pay dividends.

The over-supply of dry bulk vessel capacity may depress charter rates, which has and may continue to limit our ability to operate our dry bulk vessels profitably.
The supply of dry bulk vessels has outpaced vessel demand growth over the past few years, thereby causing downward pressure on charter rates. World trade contracted this year and as a result the newbuilding orders have declined as well. If the supply of dry bulk vessels is not fully absorbed by the market, charter rates may be negatively affected.
We are dependent on spot charters and any decrease in spot charter rates in the future may adversely affect our earnings.
We currently operate most of our vessels in the spot market, exposing us to fluctuations in spot market charter rates. We may also employ any additional vessels that we acquire or take delivery of in the spot market.
Although the number of vessels in our fleet that participate in the spot market will vary from time to time, we anticipate that a significant portion of our fleet will participate in this market. As a result, our financial performance will be significantly affected by conditions in the dry bulk spot market and only our vessels that operate under fixed-rate time charters may, during the period such vessels operate under such time charters, provide a fixed source of revenue to us.
Historically, the dry bulk markets have been volatile as a result of the many conditions and factors that can affect the price, supply of and demand for dry bulk capacity. Weak global economic trends may further reduce demand for transportation of dry bulk cargoes over longer distances, which may materially affect our revenues, profitability and cash flows. The spot charter market may fluctuate significantly based upon supply of and demand for vessels and cargoes. The successful operation of our vessels in the competitive spot charter market depends upon, among other things, obtaining profitable spot charters and minimizing, to the extent possible, time spent waiting for charters and time spent traveling unladen to pick up cargo. The spot market is volatile and there have been periods when spot rates have declined below the operating cost of vessels. If future spot charter rates decline, then we may be unable to operate our vessels trading in the spot market profitably, or meet our obligations, including payments on indebtedness. Furthermore, as charter rates for spot charters are fixed for a single voyage, which may last up to several weeks during periods in which spot charter rates are rising, we will generally experience delays in realizing the benefits from such increases.
We may not be able to obtain financing on terms acceptable to us or at all, which may negatively impact our business.
The ability to obtain money from the credit markets has become more difficult as many lenders have increased interest rate margins, enacted tighter lending standards, refused to refinance existing debt at all or on terms similar to current debt, and in some cases ceased to provide funding to borrowers. Due to these factors, we cannot be certain that financing will be available if needed and to the extent required, on acceptable terms. If financing is not available when needed, or is available only on unfavorable terms, we may be unable to meet our obligations as they come due or we may be unable to enhance our existing business, complete additional vessel acquisitions or otherwise take advantage of business opportunities as they arise.
Risks involved with operating ocean-going vessels could affect our business and reputation, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.

The operation of an ocean-going vessel carries inherent risks. These risks include the possibility of:
loss of life or harm to seamen,
an accident involving a vessel resulting in damage to the asset or a total loss of the same,
a marine disaster,
terrorism,
piracy or robbery,
environmental accidents,
cargo and property losses and damage, and
business interruptions caused by mechanical failure, human error, war, political action in various countries, labor strikes, or adverse weather conditions.

Any of these circumstances or events could increase our costs or lower our revenues. The involvement of our vessels in an environmental disaster may harm our reputation as a safe and reliable dry bulk operator.
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Political instability, terrorist attacks, international hostilities and global public health threats can affect the seaborne transportation industry, which could adversely affect our business.

We conduct most of our operations outside of the United States, and our business, results of operations, cash flows, financial condition and ability to pay dividends, if any, in the future may be adversely affected by changing economic, political and government conditions in the countries and regions where our vessels are employed or registered. Moreover, we operate in a sector of the economy that is likely to be adversely impacted by the effects of political conflicts.

Currently, the world economy faces a number of challenges, including trade tensions between the United States and China and between the United States and the European Union, continuing turmoil and hostilities in the Middle East, the Korean Peninsula, North Africa, Venezuela, Iran and other geographic areas and countries, continuing economic weakness in the European Union, geopolitical events such as the withdrawal of the U.K. from the European Union ("Brexit"), continuing threat of terrorist attacks around the world, continuing instability and conflicts and other recent occurrences in the Middle East and in other geographic areas and countries, and stabilizing growth in China, as well as the public health concerns stemming from the COVID-19 outbreak.

The threat of future terrorist attacks around the world, continues to cause uncertainty in the world's financial markets and international commerce and may affect our business, operating results and financial condition. Continuing conflicts and recent developments in the Middle East, may lead to additional acts of terrorism and armed conflict around the world, which may contribute to further economic instability in the global financial markets and international commerce. Additionally, any escalations between the United States and Iran could result in retaliation from Iran that could potentially affect the shipping industry, through increased attacks on vessels in the Strait of Hormuz (which already experienced an increased number of attacks on and seizures of vessels in 2019 and 2020). These uncertainties could also adversely affect our ability to obtain additional financing or insurance on terms acceptable to us or at all. Any of these occurrences could have a material adverse impact on our operating results, revenues and costs.

In Europe, large sovereign debts and fiscal deficits, low growth prospects and high unemployment rates in a number of countries have contributed to the rise of Eurosceptic parties, which would like their countries to leave the Euro. The Brexit further increases the risk of additional trade protectionism. Brexit, or similar events in other jurisdictions, could impact global markets, including foreign exchange and securities markets; any resulting changes in currency exchange rates, tariffs, treaties and other regulatory matters could in turn adversely impact our business and operations.

In addition, concerns regarding the possibility of sovereign debt defaults by European Union member countries have in the past disrupted financial markets throughout the world, and may lead to weaker consumer demand in the European Union, the United States, and other parts of the world. The possibility of sovereign debt defaults by European Union member countries and the possibility of market reforms to float the Chinese renminbi, either of which development could weaken the Euro against the Chinese renminbi, could adversely affect consumer demand in the European Union. Moreover, the revaluation of the renminbi may negatively impact the United States' demand for imported goods, many of which are shipped from China. Future weak economic conditions could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition and our ability to pay dividends to our stockholders.

Also, China and the US have implemented certain increasingly protective trade measures with continuing trade tensions, including significant tariff increases, between these countries. These trade barriers to protect domestic industries against foreign imports, depress shipping demand. Although the United States and China successfully reached an interim trade in January 2020 that has de-escalated the continuing trade tensions with both sides rolling back tariffs, the extent to which they will implement the deal is unpredictable, not to mention that either country may freely terminate the deal with advanced written notice according to the underlying trade agreement. Protectionist developments, or the perception they may occur, may have a material adverse effect on global economic conditions, and may significantly reduce global trade. Moreover, increasing trade protectionism may cause an increase in (a) the cost of goods exported from regions globally, (b) the length of time required to transport goods and (c) the risks associated with exporting goods. Such increases may significantly affect the quantity of goods to be shipped, shipping time schedules, voyage costs and other associated costs, which could have an adverse impact on our charterers’ business, operating results and financial condition and could thereby affect their ability to make timely charter hire payments to us and to renew and increase the number of their time charters with us. This could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and our ability to pay any cash distributions to our stockholders.

In addition, public health threats such as influenza and other highly communicable diseases or viruses, outbreaks of which have from time to time occurred in various parts of the world in which we operate, including China, Japan and South Korea, which may even become pandemics, such as the COVID-19 virus, could lead to a significant decrease of demand for the transportation of dry bulk cargoes. Such events may also adversely impact our operations, including timely rotation of our crews, the timing of completion of any outstanding or future newbuilding projects or repair works in drydock as well as the
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operations of our customers. Delayed rotation of crew may adversely affect the mental and physical health of our crew and the safe operation of our vessels as a consequence.

Our financial results and operations may be adversely affected by the ongoing outbreak of COVID-19, and related governmental responses thereto.

Since the beginning of calendar year 2020, the outbreak of COVID-19 that originated in China in late 2019 and that has spread to most nations around the globe has resulted in numerous actions taken by governments and governmental agencies in an attempt to mitigate the spread of the virus, including travel bans, quarantines, and other emergency public health measures, and a number of countries implemented lockdown measures. These measures have resulted in a significant reduction in global economic activity and extreme volatility in the global financial markets. If the COVID-19 pandemic continues on a prolonged basis or becomes more severe, the adverse impact on the global economy and the rate environment for dry bulk and other cargo vessels may deteriorate further and our operations and cash flows may be negatively impacted. Relatively weak global economic conditions during periods of volatility have and may continue to have a number of adverse consequences for dry bulk and other shipping sectors, including, among other things:

low charter rates, particularly for vessels employed on short-term time charters or in the spot market;
decreases in the market value of dry bulk vessels and limited second-hand market for the sale of vessels;
limited financing for vessels;
loan covenant defaults; and
declaration of bankruptcy by certain vessel operators, vessel owners, shipyards and charterers.

The COVID-19 pandemic and measures to contain its spread have negatively impacted regional and global economies and trade patterns in markets in which we operate, the way we operate our business, and the businesses of our charterers and suppliers. These negative impacts could continue or worsen, even after the pandemic itself diminishes or ends. Companies, including us, have also taken precautions, such as requiring employees to work remotely and imposing travel restrictions, while some other businesses have been required to close entirely. Moreover, we face significant risks to our personnel and operations due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Our crews face risk of exposure to COVID-19 as a result of travel to ports in which cases of COVID-19 have been reported. Our shore-based personnel likewise face risk of such exposure, as we maintain offices in areas that have been impacted by the spread of COVID-19.

Measures against COVID-19 in a number of countries have restricted crew rotations on our vessels, which may continue or become more severe. As a result, in 2020, we experienced and may continue to experience disruptions to our normal vessel operations caused by increased deviation time associated with positioning our vessels to countries in which we can undertake a crew rotation in compliance with such measures. Delays in crew rotations have led to issues with crew fatigue and may continue to do so, which may result in delays or other operational issues. We have had and expect to continue to have increased expenses due to incremental fuel consumption and days in which our vessels are unable to earn revenue in order to deviate to certain ports on which we would ordinarily not call during a typical voyage. We may also incur additional expenses associated with testing, personal protective equipment, quarantines, and travel expenses such as airfare costs in order to perform crew rotations in the current environment. In 2020, delays in crew rotations have also caused us to incur additional costs related to crew bonuses paid to retain the existing crew members on board and may continue to do so.

The COVID-19 pandemic and measures in place against the spread of the virus have led to a highly difficult environment in which to dispose of vessels given difficulty to physically inspect vessels. The impact of COVID-19 has also resulted in reduced industrial activity in China with temporary closures of factories and other facilities, labour shortages and restrictions on travel. We believe these disruptions along with other seasonal factors, including lower demand for some of the cargoes we carry such as iron ore and coal, have contributed to lower drybulk rates in 2020.

Epidemics may also affect personnel operating payment systems through which we receive revenues from the chartering of our vessels or pay for our expenses, resulting in delays in payments. Organizations across industries, including ours, are rightly focusing on their employees' well-being, whilst making sure that their operations continue undisrupted and at the same time, adapting to the new ways of operating. As such employees are encouraged or even required to operate remotely which significantly increases the risk of cyber security attacks.

Further, containment measures and quarantine restrictions adopted by many countries worldwide have caused significant impact on our ability to embark and disembark crew members and on our seafarers themselves. As a result, since the outbreak of COVID-19 and as of the date of this report, we have encountered certain prolonged delays and surrounding complexities in embarking and disembarking crew onto our ships which further resulted in increased operational costs and decreased revenues by reason of off-hires associated with crew rotation and related logistical complications associated with supplying our vessels with spares or other supplies.
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The occurrence or continued occurrence of any of the foregoing events or other epidemics or an increase in the severity or duration of the COVID-19 or other epidemics could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows, financial condition, value of our vessels, and ability to pay dividends.

We face risks attendant to changes in economic and regulatory conditions around the world.

We face risks attendant to changes in economic environments, changes in interest rates, instability in the banking and securities markets and trade regulation around the world, among other factors. Major market disruptions and adverse changes in market conditions and regulatory climate in China, the United States, the European Union and worldwide may adversely affect our business or impair our ability to borrow amounts under credit facilities or any future financial arrangements.

Additionally, a further economic slowdown in the Asia-Pacific region, especially in China, could negatively affect global economic markets and the market for dry bulk shipping. Chinese dry bulk imports have accounted for the majority of global dry bulk transportation growth annually over the last decade, with recent demand growth driven by stronger iron ore and coal imports into China. Before the global economic financial crisis that began in 2008, China had one of the world's fastest growing economies in terms of gross domestic product ("GDP"), which had a significant impact on shipping demand. Following the emergence of COVID-19, China experienced reduced industrial activity with temporary closures of factories and other facilities, labor shortages and restrictions on travel. China and other countries in the Asia Pacific region may continue to experience slowed or even negative economic growth in the future including as a result of COVID-19 or other public health threats. Our financial condition and results of operations, as well as our future prospects, would likely be hindered by a continuing or worsening economic downturn in any of these countries or geographic regions. Furthermore, there is a rising threat of a Chinese financial crisis resulting from massive personal and corporate indebtedness and ''trade wars''. The International Monetary Fund (''IMF'') warned that continuing trade tensions, including significant tariff increases, between the United States and China could derail recovery from the impacts of COVID-19. Although the United States and China signed a trade agreement in early 2020, there is no assurance that the Chinese economy will not experience a significant contraction in the future. Therefore, we cannot assure you that the Chinese economy will grow in the future or that global GDP will not be affected beyond the IMF's initial forecast.

Over the past several years, the credit markets in the United States and Europe have remained contracted, deleveraged and less liquid, and the U.S. federal and state governments and European authorities have implemented governmental action and/or new regulation of the financial markets and may implement additional regulations in the future. Global financial markets have been, and continue to be, disrupted and volatile. Potential adverse developments in the outlook for the United States or European countries, or market perceptions concerning these and related issues, could reduce the overall demand for dry bulk cargoes and for our service, which could negatively affect our financial position, results of operations and cash flow.

Further, governments may turn to trade barriers to protect their domestic industries against foreign imports, thereby depressing shipping demand. In particular, leaders in the United States have indicated that the United States may seek to implement more protective trade measures. The results of the 2020 presidential election in the United States have created significant uncertainty about the future relationship between the United States, China and other exporting countries, including with respect to trade policies, treaties, government regulations and tariffs. For example, in March 2018, former President Trump announced tariffs on imported steel and aluminum into the United States that could have a negative impact on international trade generally and dry bulk shipping specifically, and in January 2019, the United States announced sanctions against Venezuela, which may have an effect on its oil output and in turn affect global oil supply. However, it is not yet clear how the new United States administration under President Biden may deviate from former administration's protectionist foreign trade policies.

Protectionist developments, or the perception that they may occur, may have a material adverse effect on global economic conditions, and may significantly reduce global trade. Moreover, increasing trade protectionism may cause an increase in (a) the cost of goods exported from regions globally, particularly the Asia-Pacific region, (b) the length of time required to transport goods and (c) the risks associated with exporting goods. Such increases may significantly affect the quantity of goods to be shipped, shipping time schedules, voyage costs and other associated costs, which could have an adverse impact on our charterers’ business, operating results and financial condition and could thereby affect their ability to make timely charter hire payments to us and to renew and increase the number of their time charters with us. This could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and our ability to pay any cash distributions to our stockholders.

Trade actions initiated by the U.S. imposing tariffs on imports have been met with retaliatory tariffs by other countries, adding a level of tension and uncertainty to the global economic environment. In November 2018, the U.S., Mexico and Canada executed the U.S.-Mexico-Canada Agreement ("the USMCA"), the successor agreement to the North American Free Trade Agreement ("NAFTA"). The agreement includes the imposition of tariffs on vehicles that do not meet regional raw material (steel and aluminum), part and labor content requirements. The agreement was ratified by the U.S. in January 2020.

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While global economic conditions have generally improved, renewed adverse economic and governmental factors, together with the concurrent volatility in charter rates and vessel values, may have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows and could cause the price of our common shares to decline. An extended period of deterioration in the outlook for the world economy could reduce the overall demand for our services and could also adversely affect our ability to obtain financing on acceptable terms or at all.

Changes in the economic and political environment in China and policies adopted by the government to regulate its economy may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The Chinese economy differs from the economies of western countries in such respects as structure, government involvement, level of development, growth rate, capital reinvestment, allocation of resources, bank regulation, currency and monetary policy, rate of inflation and balance of payments position. Prior to 1978, the Chinese economy was a "planned economy." Since 1978, increasing emphasis has been placed on the utilization of market forces in the development of the Chinese economy. Annual and five year state plans are adopted by the Chinese government in connection with the development of the economy. Although state-owned enterprises still account for a substantial portion of the Chinese industrial output, in general, the Chinese government is reducing the level of direct control that it exercises over the economy through State Plans and other measures. There is an increasing level of freedom and autonomy in areas such as allocation of resources, production, pricing and management and a gradual shift in emphasis to a ''market economy'' and enterprise reform. Limited price reforms were undertaken with the result that prices for certain commodities are principally determined by market forces. In addition, economic reforms may include reforms to the banking and credit sector and may produce a shift away from the export-driven growth model that has characterized the Chinese economy over the past few decades. Many of the reforms are unprecedented or experimental and may be subject to revision, change or abolition based upon the outcome of such experiments. The level of imports to and exports from China could be adversely affected by the failure to continue market reforms or changes to existing pro-export economic policies. For example, China imposes a tax for non-resident international transportation enterprises engaged in the provision of services of passengers or cargo, among other items, in and out of China using their own, chartered or leased vessels. The regulation may subject international transportation companies to Chinese enterprise income tax on profits generated from international transportation services passing through Chinese ports. This tax or similar regulations, such as the recently promoted environmental taxes on coal, by China may result in an increase in the cost of raw materials imported to China and the risks associated with importing raw materials to China, as well as a decrease in any raw materials shipped from our charterers to China. This could have an adverse impact on our charterers’ business, operating results and financial condition and could thereby affect their ability to make timely charter hire payments to us and to renew and increase the number of their time charters with us. The level of imports to and exports from China may also be adversely affected by changes in political, economic and social conditions (including a slowing of economic growth) or other relevant policies of the Chinese government, such as changes in laws, regulations or export and import restrictions, internal political instability, changes in currency policies, changes in trade policies and territorial or trade disputes. A decrease in the level of imports to and exports from China could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition.
In addition, President Xi Jinping committed his country to achieving carbon neutrality by 2060 at the UN General Assembly, despite that carbon emissions are currently a prominent part of China’s economic and industrial structure as it relies heavily on nonrenewable energy sources, generally lacks energy efficiency, and has a rapidly growing energy demand. Depending on how China attempts to achieve carbon neutrality by 2060, including through the reduction in the use of coal, an overall increase in the use of nonrenewable energy as part of the energy consumption mix and through other means and any reduction in the demand for coal and related products could have a material adverse effect on our business, cash flows and results of operations.

We conduct a substantial amount of business in China. The legal system in China has inherent uncertainties that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The Chinese legal system is based on written statutes and their legal interpretation by the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress. Prior court decisions may be cited for reference but have limited precedential value. Since 1979, the Chinese government has been developing a comprehensive system of commercial laws, and considerable progress has been made in introducing laws and regulations dealing with economic matters such as foreign investment, corporate organization and governance, commerce, taxation and trade. However, because these laws and regulations are relatively new, there is a general lack of internal guidelines or authoritative interpretive guidance and because of the limited number of published cases and their non-binding nature, interpretation and enforcement of these laws and regulations involve uncertainties. Any administrative and court proceedings in China may be protracted, resulting in substantial costs and diversion of resources and management attention. Since Chinese administrative and court authorities have significant discretion in interpreting and implementing statutory and contractual terms, it may be more difficult to evaluate the outcome of administrative and court proceedings and the level of legal protection we enjoy than in more developed legal systems. In response to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic,
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many countries, ports and organizations, including those where the Company conducts a large part of its operations, have implemented measures to combat the outbreak, such as quarantines and travel restrictions. Such measures have and will likely continue to cause severe trade disruptions and delays in operations and transactions globally.
To the extent of our charters, shipbuilding contracts and financing agreements that are governed by English law, if we are required to commence legal proceedings against a customer, a shipbuilder or a lender based in China, we may have difficulties in enforcing any judgment rendered by an English court (or other non-Chinese court) in China.
Changes in laws and regulations, including with regards to tax matters, and their implementation by local authorities could affect our vessels that are either chartered to Chinese customers or that call to Chinese ports and our vessels that undergo dry docking, or to which we install scrubbers, at Chinese shipyards, and the financial institutions with whom we have entered into financing agreements, could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Acts of piracy on ocean-going vessels could adversely affect our business.
Acts of piracy have historically affected ocean-going vessels trading in regions of the world such as the South China Sea, the Indian Ocean and in particular the Gulf of Aden off the coast of Somalia and the Gulf of Guinea region off Nigeria, which experienced increased incidents of piracy in recent years. Sea piracy incidents continue to occur, increasingly on the West Coast of Africa, with dry bulk vessels and tankers being particularly vulnerable to such attacks. In the past, political conflicts have also resulted in attacks on vessels, mining of waterways and other efforts to disrupt international shipping. The perception that our vessels are potential piracy or terrorist targets could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Further, if these piracy attacks occur in regions in which our vessels are deployed that insurers characterize as "war risk" zones or by the Joint War Committee as "war and strikes" listed areas, premiums payable for such coverage could increase significantly and such insurance coverage may be more difficult to obtain, if available at all. In addition, crew costs, including costs that may be incurred to the extent we employ on-board security guards, could increase in such circumstances. We may not be adequately insured to cover losses from these incidents, which could have a material adverse effect on us. In addition, detention hijacking as a result of an act of piracy against our vessels, or an increase in cost, or unavailability of insurance for our vessels, could have a material adverse impact on our business, results of operations, cash flows, financial condition and may result in loss of revenues, increased costs and decreased cash flows to our customers, which could impair their ability to make payments to us under our charters.
The instability of the Euro or the inability of countries to refinance their debts could have a material adverse effect on our revenue, profitability and financial position.

As a result of the credit crisis in Europe, in particular in Greece, Italy, Ireland, Portugal and Spain, the European Commission created the European Financial Stability Facility ("the EFSF"), and the European Financial Stability Mechanism ("the EFSM"), to provide funding to Eurozone countries in financial difficulties that seek such support. In March 2011, the European Council agreed on the need for Eurozone countries to establish a permanent stability mechanism, the European Stability Mechanism ("the ESM"), which was activated by mutual agreement, to assume the role of the EFSF and the EFSM in providing external financial assistance to Eurozone countries entered into force in May 2013. Despite these measures, and certainly against the background of the COVID-19 outbreak, concerns persist regarding the debt burden of certain Eurozone countries and their ability to meet future financial obligations and the overall stability of the Euro. An extended period of adverse development in the outlook for European countries could still reduce the overall demand for our services. These potential developments, or market perceptions concerning these and related issues, could affect our financial position, results of operations and cash flow.

If our vessels call on ports located in countries or territories that are the subject of sanctions or embargoes imposed by the U.S. government, the European Union, the United Nations or other governmental authorities, it could lead to monetary fines or adversely affect our reputation and the market for our shares of common stock and its trading price.
While none of our vessels called on ports located in countries or territories that are the subject of country-wide or territory-wide sanctions or embargoes imposed by the U.S. government or other applicable governmental authorities (“Sanctioned Jurisdictions”) in violation of sanctions or embargo laws during 2020, and we endeavor to take precautions reasonably designed to mitigate such risks, it is possible that in the future our vessels may call on ports located in Sanctioned Jurisdictions on charterers’ instructions and/or without our consent. If such activities result in a violation of sanctions or embargo laws, we could be subject to monetary fines, penalties, or other sanctions, and our reputation and the market for our common shares could be adversely affected.

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The applicable sanctions and embargo laws and regulations vary in their application, as they do not all apply to the same covered persons or proscribe the same activities, and such sanctions and embargo laws and regulations may be amended or expanded over time. Current or future counterparties of ours may be affiliated with persons or entities that are or may be in the future the subject of sanctions or embargoes imposed by the United States, the EU, and/or other international bodies. If we determine that such sanctions require us to terminate existing or future contracts to which we, or our subsidiaries, are party or if we are found to be in violation of such applicable sanctions, our results of operations may be adversely affected, or we may suffer reputational harm.

Although we believe that we have been in compliance with all applicable sanctions and embargo laws and regulations, and intend to maintain such compliance, there can be no assurance that we will be in compliance in the future. Any such violation could result in fines, penalties or other sanctions that could severely impact our ability to access U.S. capital markets and conduct our business, and could result in some investors deciding, or being required, to divest their interest, or not to invest, in us. In addition, certain institutional investors may have investment policies or restrictions that prevent them from holding securities of companies that have contracts with countries identified by the U.S. government as state sponsors of terrorism. The determination by these investors not to invest in, or to divest from, our common shares may adversely affect the price at which our common shares trade. Moreover, our charterers may violate applicable sanctions and embargo laws and regulations as a result of actions that do not involve us or our vessels, and those violations could in turn negatively affect our reputation. In addition, our reputation and the market for our securities may be adversely affected if we engage in certain other activities, such as entering into charters with individuals or entities that are not controlled by the governments of countries or territories that are the subject of certain U.S. sanctions or embargo laws, or engaging in operations associated with those countries or territories pursuant to contracts with third parties that are unrelated to those countries or territories or entities controlled by their governments. Investor perception of the value of our common shares may be adversely affected by the consequences of war, the effects of terrorism, civil unrest and governmental actions in the countries or territories that we operate in.
Compliance with safety and other vessel requirements imposed by classification societies may be costly and could reduce our net cash flows and net income.
The hull and machinery of every commercial vessel must be certified as being "in class" by a classification society authorized by its country of registry. The classification society certifies that a vessel is safe and seaworthy in accordance with the applicable rules and regulations of the country of registry of the vessel and the Safety of Life at Sea Convention.
A vessel must undergo annual surveys, intermediate surveys, drydockings and special surveys. In lieu of a special survey, a vessel's machinery may be placed on a continuous survey cycle, under which the machinery would be surveyed periodically over a five-year period. We expect our vessels to be on special survey cycles for hull inspection and continuous survey cycles for machinery inspection.
Every vessel is also required to be drydocked every 30 to 36 months for inspection of the underwater parts of the vessel. Vessels under fifteen years of age can waive dry docking on intermediate inspections in order to increase available days and decrease capital expenditures, provided the vessel is inspected underwater. If any vessel does not maintain its class and/or fails any annual survey, intermediate survey, drydocking or special survey, the vessel will be unable to carry cargo between ports and will be unemployable and uninsurable which could cause us to be in violation of certain covenants in our loan agreements. Any such inability to carry cargo or be employed, or any such violation of covenants, could have a material adverse impact on our financial condition and results of operations.
Compliance with the above requirements may result in significant expense. If any vessel does not maintain its class or fails any annual, intermediate or special survey, the vessel will be unable to trade between ports and will be unemployable, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.
Climate change and greenhouse gas restrictions may adversely impact our operations and markets, and may cause us to incur substantial costs and to procure low-sulfur fuel oil directly on the wholesale market for storage at sea and onward consumption on our vessels.

Due to concern over the risk of climate change, a number of countries and the International Maritime Organization ("the IMO"), have adopted, or are considering the adoption of, regulatory frameworks to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. These regulatory measures may include, among others, adoption of cap and trade regimes, carbon taxes, increased efficiency standards and incentives or mandates for renewable energy. More specifically, on October 27, 2016, the IMO's Marine Environment Protection Committee announced its decision concerning the implementation of regulations mandating a reduction in sulfur emissions from 3.5% currently to 0.5% as of the beginning of January 1, 2020. Since January 1, 2020, ships must either remove sulfur from emissions or buy fuel with low sulfur content, which may lead to increased costs and supplementary investments for
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ship owners. The interpretation of "fuel oil used on board" includes use in main engine, auxiliary engines and boilers. Shipowners may comply with this regulation by (i) using 0.5% sulfur fuels on board, which are available around the world but at a higher cost; (ii) installing scrubbers for cleaning of the exhaust gas; or (iii) by retrofitting vessels to be powered by liquefied natural gas, which may not be a viable option due to the lack of supply network and high costs involved in this process. Costs of compliance with these regulatory changes may be significant and may have a material adverse effect on our future performance, results of operations, cash flows and financial position. Additional or new conventions, laws and regulations may be adopted that could require, among others, the installation of expensive emission control systems and could adversely affect our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.

As of March 18, 2021, 23 of our vessels have been equipped with scrubbers to comply with this change in regulation ("Scrubber Program") and as of January 1, 2020 we have transitioned to burning IMO compliant fuels in our non-scrubber equipped vessels and as necessary. We continue to evaluate different options in complying with IMO and other rules and regulations. Our fuel costs and fuel inventories increased in 2020 and might further increase in the future as a result of these sulfur emission regulations. Low sulfur fuel is more expensive than standard marine fuel containing 3.5% sulfur content and may become more expensive or difficult to obtain as a result of increased demand. If the cost differential between low sulfur fuel and high sulfur fuel is significantly higher than anticipated, or if low sulfur fuel is not available at ports on certain trading routes, it may not be feasible or competitive to operate our vessels on certain trading routes without installing scrubbers or without incurring deviation time to obtain compliant fuel. Scrubbers may not be available to be installed on such vessels at a favorable cost or at all if we seek them at a later date. Further there is a risk that if the fuel spread between high sulfur fuel oil and very low sulfur fuel oil continues to shrink, and therefore the alternative cost related to scrubber investments may increase.
In addition, if sulfur emissions regulations are relaxed in the future, if enforcement is delayed or not applied in the future, or if the cost differential between low sulfur fuel and high sulfur fuel is lower than anticipated, we may not realize the economic benefits or recover the cost of our Scrubber Program. In addition, any passage of environmental legislation or other regulatory initiatives by the IMO, the EU, the U.S. or other countries where we operate, or any treaty adopted at the international level, that restricts emissions of greenhouse gases, or the use of scrubbers could require us to make significant additional financial expenditures which we cannot predict with certainty at this time.

Fuel is a significant, if not the largest, expense in our shipping operations when vessels are under voyage charter and is an important factor in negotiating charter rates. Our operations and the performance of our vessels, and as a result our results of operations, cash flows and financial position, may be negatively affected to the extent that compliant sulfur fuel oils are unavailable, of low or inconsistent quality, if de-bunkering facilities are unavailable to permit our vessels to accept compliant fuels when required, or upon occurrence of any of the other foregoing events. Costs of compliance with these and other related regulatory changes may be significant and may have a material adverse effect on our future performance, results of operations, cash flows and financial position. As a result, an increase in the price of fuel beyond our expectations may adversely affect our profitability at the time of charter negotiation. Further, fuel may become much more expensive in the future, which may reduce the profitability and competitiveness of our business versus other forms of transportation, such as truck or rail.

While we carry cargo insurance to protect us against certain risks of loss of or damage to the procured commodities, we may not be adequately insured to cover any losses from such operational risks, which could have a material adverse effect on us. Any significant uninsured or under-insured loss or liability could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition and our available cash.

In addition, although the emissions of greenhouse gases from international shipping currently are not subject to the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, which required adopting countries to implement national programs to reduce emissions of certain gases, or the Paris Agreement (discussed further below), a new treaty may be adopted in the future that includes restrictions on shipping emissions. Compliance with changes in laws, regulations and obligations relating to climate change affects the propulsion options in subsequent vessel designs and could increase our costs related to acquiring new vessels, operating and maintaining our existing vessels and require us to install new emission controls, acquire allowances or pay taxes related to our greenhouse gas emissions or administer and manage a greenhouse gas emissions program. Revenue generation and strategic growth opportunities may also be adversely affected.

Adverse effects upon the shipping industry relating to climate change, including growing public concern about the environmental impact of climate change, may also adversely affect demand for our services. The increased focus on ESG may cause lenders to withdraw from financing vessels within our industry. In addition, the physical effects of climate change, including changes in weather patterns, extreme weather events, rising sea levels, scarcity of water resources, may negatively impact our operations.

Increasing scrutiny and changing expectations from investors, lenders and other market participants with respect to our
ESG policies may impose additional costs on us or expose us to additional risks.

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Companies across all industries are facing increasing scrutiny relating to their ESG policies. Investor advocacy groups, certain institutional investors, investment funds, lenders and other market participants are increasingly focused on ESG practices and in recent years have placed increasing importance on the implications and social cost of their investments. The increased focus and activism related to ESG and similar matters may hinder access to capital, as investors and lenders may decide to reallocate capital or to not commit capital as a result of their assessment of a company’s ESG practices. Companies which do not adapt to or comply with investor, lender or other industry shareholder expectations and standards, which are evolving, or which are perceived to have not responded appropriately to the growing concern for ESG issues, regardless of whether there is a legal requirement to do so, may suffer from reputational damage and the business, financial condition, and/or stock price of such a company could be materially and adversely affected.

We may face increasing pressures from investors, lenders and other market participants, who are increasingly focused on climate change, to prioritize sustainable energy practices, reduce our carbon footprint and promote sustainability. As a result, we may be required to implement more stringent ESG procedures or standards so that our existing and future investors and lenders remain invested in us and make further investments in us. If we do not meet these standards, our business and/or our ability to access capital could be harmed.

Additionally, certain investors and lenders may exclude transportation companies, such as us, from their investing portfolios altogether due to environmental, social and governance factors. These limitations in both the debt and equity capital markets may affect our ability to grow as our plans for growth may include accessing the equity and debt capital markets. If those markets are unavailable, or if we are unable to access alternative means of financing on acceptable terms, or at all, we may be unable to implement our business strategy, which would have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations and impair our ability to service our indebtedness. Further, it is likely that we will incur additional costs and require additional resources to monitor, report and comply with wide ranging ESG requirements. The occurrence of any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial condition.

We are subject to complex laws and regulations, including environmental laws and regulations, which can increase our liability and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Our operations will be subject to numerous laws and regulations in the form of international conventions and treaties, national, state and local laws and national and international regulations in force in the jurisdictions in which our vessels operate or are registered, which can significantly affect the ownership and operation of our vessels. Compliance with such laws and regulations, where applicable, may require installation of costly equipment or operational changes and may affect the resale value or useful lives of our vessels. Compliance with such laws and regulations may require us to obtain certain permits or authorizations prior to commencing operations. Failure to obtain such permits or authorizations could materially impact our business results of operations and financial conditions by delaying or limiting our ability to accept charterers. We may also incur additional costs in order to comply with other existing and future regulatory obligations, including, but not limited to, costs relating to air emissions including greenhouse gases, the management of ballast waters, maintenance and inspection, development and implementation of emergency procedures and insurance coverage or other financial assurance of our ability to address pollution incidents.
A failure to comply with applicable laws and regulations may result in administrative and civil penalties, criminal sanctions or the suspension or termination of our operations. Environmental requirements can also affect the resale value or useful lives of our vessels, could require a reduction in cargo capacity, ship modifications or operational changes or restrictions, could lead to decreased availability of insurance coverage for environmental matters or could result in the denial of access to certain jurisdictional waters or ports or detention in certain ports. Under local, national and foreign laws, as well as international treaties and conventions, we could incur material liabilities, including clean-up obligations and natural resource damages liability, in the event that there is a release of hazardous materials from our vessels or otherwise in connection with our operations. Environmental laws often impose strict liability for remediation of spills and releases of oil and hazardous substances, which could subject us to liability, without regard to whether we were negligent or at fault. We could also become subject to personal injury or property damage claims relating to the release of hazardous substances associated with our existing or historic operations. Violations of, or liabilities under, environmental requirements can result in substantial penalties, fines and other sanctions, including, in certain instances, seizure or detention of our vessels, and could harm our reputation with current or potential charterers of our vessels. We will be required to satisfy insurance and financial responsibility requirements for potential oil (including marine fuel) spills and other pollution incidents. Although we have insurance to cover certain environmental risks, there can be no assurance that such insurance will be sufficient to cover all such risks or that any claims will not have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

Many environmental requirements are designed to reduce the risk of pollution, such as from oil spills, and our compliance with these requirements could be costly. For example, in order to comply with the sulfur emission requirements of Annex VI of the
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International Convention for the Prevention of Marine Pollution from Ships (“MARPOL”), which instituted a global 0.5% (lowered from 3.5% as of January 1, 2020) sulfur cap on marine fuel consumed by a vessel, unless the vessel is equipped with a scrubber, we may be required to incur additional costs to meet new maintenance and inspection requirements, develop contingency plans for potential spills, and obtain insurance coverage. The increased demand for low sulfur fuels may increase the costs of fuel for our vessels that do not have scrubbers. Additional conventions, laws and regulations may be adopted that could limit our ability to do business or increase the cost of doing business and which may materially and adversely affect our operations.

In addition, regulations relating to ballast water discharge may adversely affect our revenues and profitability. The IMO has imposed updated guidelines for ballast water management systems specifying the maximum amount of viable organisms allowed to be discharged from a vessel's ballast water. Depending on the date of the IOPP renewal survey, existing vessels constructed before September 8, 2017, must comply with the updated D-2 standard on or after September 8, 2019. For most vessels, compliance with the D-2 standard will involve installing on-board systems to treat ballast water and eliminate unwanted organisms. Ships constructed on or after September 8, 2017 are to comply with the D-2 standards upon delivery. We currently have 20 vessels in our fleet constructed prior to September 8, 2017 that do not have ballast water management systems installed and will need such systems installed on the first upcoming IOPP renewal in order to be D-2 compliant. Costs in order to become D-2 compliant for these vessels may be substantial and adversely affect our revenues and profitability.

Furthermore, United States regulations are currently changing. Although the 2013 Vessel General Permit (''VGP'') program and U.S. National Invasive Species Act (''NISA'') are currently in effect to regulate ballast discharge, exchange and installation, the Vessel Incidental Discharge Act (''VIDA''), which was signed into law on December 4, 2018, requires that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”) develop national standards of performance for approximately 30 discharges, similar to those found in the VPG within two years. By approximately 2022, the U.S. Coast Guard (“USCG”), must develop corresponding implementation, compliance and enforcement regulations regarding ballast water. The new regulations could require the installation of new equipment, which may cause us to incur substantial costs.

Please see “Item 4. Information on the Company - B. Business Overview - Environmental and Other Regulations in the Shipping Industry” for a discussion of the environmental and other regulations applicable to us.

If we fail to comply with international safety regulations, we may be subject to increased liability, which may adversely affect our insurance coverage and may result in a denial of access to, or detention in, certain ports.

The operation of our vessels is affected by the requirements set forth in the IMO's International Safety Management Code (the “ISM Code”). The ISM Code requires shipowners, ship managers and bareboat charterers to develop and maintain an extensive "Safety Management System" that includes the adoption of a safety and environmental protection policy setting forth instructions and procedures for safe operation and describing procedures for dealing with emergencies. If we fail to comply with the ISM Code, we may be subject to increased liability, or may invalidate existing insurance or decrease available insurance coverage for our affected vessels, and such failure may result in a denial of access to, or detention in, certain ports. The USCG and European Union authorities enforce compliance with the ISM and International Ship and Port Facility Security Code (the “ISPS Code”), and prohibit non-compliant vessels from trading in U.S. and European Union ports. This could have a material adverse effect on our future performance, results of operations, cash flows and financial position. Given that the IMO continues to review and introduce new regulations, it is impossible to predict what additional regulations, if any, may be passed by the IMO and what effect, if any, such regulations might have on our operations.

Because such conventions, laws, and regulations are often revised, we cannot predict the ultimate cost of complying with such conventions, laws and regulations or the impact thereof on the resale prices or useful lives of our vessels. Additional conventions, laws and regulations may be adopted which could limit our ability to do business or increase the cost of our doing business and which may materially adversely affect our operations. We are required by various governmental and quasigovernmental agencies to obtain certain permits, licenses, certificates, and financial assurances with respect to our operations.

Please see “Item 4. Information on the Company - B. Business Overview - Environmental and Other Regulations in the Shipping Industry” for a discussion of the environmental and other regulations applicable to us.

Developments in safety and environmental requirements relating to the recycling of vessels may result in escalated and unexpected costs.

The 2009 Hong Kong International Convention for the Safe and Environmentally Sound Recycling of Ships (the "Hong Kong Convention"), aims to ensure ships, being recycled once they reach the end of their operational lives, do not pose any
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unnecessary risks to the environment, human health and safety. The Hong Kong Convention has yet to be ratified by the required number of countries to enter into force. Upon the Hong Kong Convention's entry into force, each ship sent for recycling will have to carry an inventory of its hazardous materials. The hazardous materials, whose use or installation are prohibited in certain circumstances, are listed in an appendix to the Hong Kong Convention. Ships will be required to have surveys to verify their inventory of hazardous materials initially, throughout their lives and prior to the ship being recycled. The Hong Kong Convention, which is currently open for accession by IMO member states, will enter into force 24 months after the date on which 15 IMO member states, representing at least 40% of world merchant shipping by gross tonnage, have ratified or approved accession. As of the date of this annual report, 16 countries have ratified or approved accession of the Hong Kong Convention but the requirement of 40% of world merchant shipping by gross tonnage has not yet been satisfied.

On November 20, 2013, the European Parliament and the Council of the EU adopted the Ship Recycling Regulation, which retains the requirements of the Hong Kong Convention and requires that certain commercial seagoing vessels flying the flag of an EU member state may be recycled only in facilities included on the European list of permitted ship recycling facilities.

Apart from that, any vessel, including ours, is required to set up and maintain an Inventory of Hazardous Materials from December 31, 2018 for EU flagged new ships and from December 31, 2020 for EU flagged existing ships and Non-EU flagged ships calling at a port or anchorage of an EU member state. Such a system includes Information on the hazardous materials with a quantity above the threshold values specified in relevant EU Resolution and are identified in ship’s structure and equipment. This inventory should be properly maintained and updated, especially after repairs, conversions or unscheduled maintenance on board the ship.

These regulatory requirements may lead to cost escalation by shipyards, repair yards and recycling yards. This may then result in a decrease in the residual recycling value of a vessel, which could potentially not cover the cost to comply with the latest requirements, which may have an adverse effect on our future performance, results of operations, cash flows and financial position.

Maritime claimants could arrest one or more of our vessels, which could interrupt our cash flow.

Crew members, suppliers of goods and services to a vessel, shippers of cargo and other parties may be entitled to a maritime lien against a vessel for unsatisfied debts, claims or damages. In many jurisdictions, a maritime lien holder may enforce its lien by "arresting" or "attaching" a vessel through foreclosure proceedings. The arrest or attachment of one or more of our vessels could result in a significant loss of earnings for the related off-hire period. In addition, in jurisdictions where the "sister ship" theory of liability applies, such as South Africa, a claimant may arrest the vessel that is subject to the claimant's maritime lien and any "associated" vessel, which is any vessel owned or controlled by the same owner. In countries with "sister ship" liability laws, claims might be asserted against us or any of our vessels for liabilities of other vessels that we own.

The smuggling of drugs or other contraband onto our vessels may lead to governmental claims against us.

Our vessels may call in ports where smugglers attempt to hide drugs and other contraband on vessels, with or without the knowledge of crew members. To the extent our vessels are found with contraband, whether inside or attached to the hull of our vessel and whether with or without the knowledge of any of our crew, we may face governmental or other regulatory claims or restrictions which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

Governments could requisition our vessels during a period of war or emergency resulting in a loss of earnings.

A government of a vessel's registry could requisition for title or seize one or more of our vessels. Requisition for title occurs when a government takes control of a vessel and becomes the owner. A government could also requisition one or more of our vessels for hire. Requisition for hire occurs when a government takes control of a vessel and effectively becomes the charterer at dictated charter rates. Generally, requisitions occur during a period of war or emergency. Government requisition of one or more of our vessels could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.

Technological innovation and quality and efficiency requirements from our customers could reduce our charterhire income and the value of our vessels.

Our customers have a high and increasing focus on quality and compliance standards with their suppliers across the entire supply chain, including the shipping and transportation segment. Our continued compliance with these standards and quality requirements is vital for our operations. The charterhire rates and the value and operational life of a vessel are determined by a number of factors including the vessel’s efficiency, operational flexibility and physical life. Efficiency includes speed, fuel economy and the ability to load and discharge cargo quickly. Flexibility includes the ability to enter harbors, utilize related
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docking facilities and pass through canals and straits. The length of a vessel’s physical life is related to its original design and construction, its maintenance and the impact of the stress of operations. We face competition from companies with more modern vessels with more fuel efficient designs than our vessels, or eco vessels, and if new dry bulk vessels are built that are more efficient or more flexible or have longer physical lives than the current eco vessels, competition from the current eco vessels and any more technologically advanced vessels could adversely affect the amount of charterhire payments we receive for our vessels and the resale value of our vessels could significantly decrease. This could have an adverse effect on our results of operations, cash flows, financial condition and ability to pay dividends.

Risks Related to Our Business

The market values of our vessels may decline, which could limit the amount of funds that we can borrow, cause us to breach certain financial covenants in our credit facilities, or result in an impairment charge, and cause us to incur a loss if we sell vessels following a decline in their market value.

The fair market values of dry bulk vessels, including our vessels, have generally experienced high volatility and may decline in the future. The fair market value of our vessels may continue to fluctuate depending on the following factors:

general economic and market conditions affecting the shipping industry;
the balance between the supply and demand of ships of a certain type;
competition from other shipping companies;
the availability of ships of the required size and design;
the availability of other modes of transportations;
cost of newbuildings;
shipyard capacity;
governmental or other regulations;
changes in environmental and other regulations that may limit the useful lives of vessels;
distressed asset sales, including newbuilding contract sales below acquisition costs due to lack of financing;
types, sizes and ages of vessels;
prevailing level of charter rates;
the need to upgrade secondhand and previously owned vessels as a result of charterer requirements, and
technological advances in vessel design or equipment or otherwise.

During the period a vessel is subject to a charter, we might not be permitted to sell it to take advantage of increases in vessel values without the charterer's consent. If we sell a vessel at a time when ship prices have fallen, the sale may be at less than the vessel's carrying amount in our financial statements, with the result that we could incur a loss and a reduction in earnings. During the year ended December 31, 2020, we recorded an impairment loss of $0.7 million, related to the sale of vessels. During the year ended December 31, 2018, we recorded impairment losses of $1.1 million, related to sale of vessels. There were no sales of vessels in 2019. The carrying values of our own and leased vessels are reviewed whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the vessel may no longer be recoverable. We assess recoverability of the carrying value by estimating the future net cash flows expected to result from the vessel, including eventual disposal for own vessels. If the future net undiscounted cash flows and the estimated fair market value of the vessel are less than the carrying value, an impairment loss is recorded equal to the difference between the vessel's carrying value and fair value. In 2020 we have recorded an impairment loss of $94.2 million on our leased vessels equal to the difference between the asset's carrying value and fair value, which has been recorded as a result of an impairment review performed on an asset by asset basis. Any impairment charges incurred as a result of declines in charter rates and other market deterioration could negatively affect our business, financial condition or operating results or the trading price of our common shares.

In addition, if we determine at any time that a vessel's future useful life and earnings require us to impair its value in our financial statements, this would result in a charge against our earnings and a reduction of our shareholders' equity. If the fair market values of our vessels decline, we may not be in compliance with certain covenants contained in our secured credit facilities, which may result in an event of default. In such circumstances, we may not be able to refinance our debt or obtain additional financing acceptable to us or at all. Further, if we are not able to comply with the covenants in our secured credit facilities, and are unable to remedy the relevant breach, our lenders could accelerate our debt and foreclose on our fleet.
Conversely, if vessel values are elevated at a time when we wish to acquire additional vessels, the cost of acquisition may increase and this could adversely affect our business, results of operations, cash flow and financial condition.
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We may require additional capital in the future, which may not be available on favorable terms, or at all.
Depending on many factors, including market developments, our future earnings, value of our assets and expenditures for any new projects, we may need additional funds. We cannot guarantee that we will be able to obtain additional financing at all or on terms acceptable to us. If adequate funds are not available, we may have to reduce expenditures for investments in new and existing projects, which could hinder our growth, prevent us from realizing potential revenues from prior investments and have a negative impact on our cash flows and results of operations.
We are highly leveraged, which could significantly limit our ability to execute our business strategy and increase the risk of default under our debt obligations.
As of December 31, 2020, we had $1,054.0 million of outstanding indebtedness under our credit facilities and debt securities, of which $87.8 million was classified as current portion of long-term debt. We cannot assure you that we will be able to generate cash flow in amounts that is sufficient to satisfy these obligations. If we are not able to satisfy these obligations, we may have to undertake alternative financing plans or sell our assets. In addition, debt service payments under our credit facilities may limit funds otherwise available for working capital, capital expenditures, payment of cash distributions and other purposes. If we are unable to meet our debt obligations, or if we otherwise default under our credit facilities, our lenders could declare the debt, together with accrued interest and fees, to be immediately due and payable and foreclose on our fleet, which could result in the acceleration of other indebtedness that we may have at such time and the commencement of similar foreclosure proceedings by other lenders
Our credit facilities impose operating and financial restrictions on us that limit our ability, or the ability of our subsidiaries party thereto, as applicable, to:
pay dividends and make capital expenditures if there is an event of default under our credit facilities;
incur additional indebtedness, including the issuance of guarantees, or refinance or prepay any indebtedness, unless certain conditions exist;
create liens on our assets, unless otherwise permitted under our credit facilities;
change the flag, class or management of our vessels or terminate or materially amend the management agreement relating to each vessel;
acquire new or sell vessels, unless certain conditions exist;
merge or consolidate with, or transfer all or substantially all our assets to, another person; or
enter into a new line of business.

In addition, our loan agreements, which are secured by liens on our vessels, contain various financial covenants. Among those covenants are requirements that relate to our financial position, operating performance and liquidity. For example, there are financial covenants that require us to maintain (i) an equity ratio fixing a minimum value of adjusted equity that is based, in part, upon the market value of the vessels securing the loans, (ii) minimum levels of free cash, (iii) positive working capital, and (iv) a minimum value, or loan-to-value, covenant, which could require us to post collateral or prepay a portion of the outstanding borrowings should the value of the vessels securing borrowings decrease below a required level.
Our ability to comply with the covenants and restrictions contained in our current or future credit facilities may be affected by events beyond our control, including prevailing economic, financial and industry conditions, interest rate developments, changes in the funding costs of our banks and changes in vessel earnings and asset valuations. If market or other economic conditions deteriorate, our ability to comply with these covenants may be impaired. For example, the market value of dry bulk vessels is likewise sensitive to, among other things, changes in the dry bulk market, with vessel values deteriorating in times when dry bulk rates are falling or anticipated to fall and improving when charter rates are rising or anticipated to rise. Such conditions may result in us not being in compliance with our loan covenants. In such a situation, unless our lenders are willing to provide further waivers of covenant compliance or modifications to our covenants, or would be willing to refinance our indebtedness, we may have to sell vessels in our fleet and/or seek to raise additional capital in the equity markets in order to comply with our loan covenants. Furthermore, if the value of our vessels deteriorates significantly, we may have to record an impairment adjustment in our financial statements, which would adversely affect our financial results and further hinder our ability to raise capital. The fair market values of our vessels may decline, which could limit the amount of funds that we can borrow, cause us to breach certain financial covenants in our credit facilities, or result in an impairment charge, and cause us to incur a loss if we sell vessels following a decline in their market value.

If we are not in compliance with our covenants and are not able to obtain covenant waivers or modifications, our lenders could require us to post additional collateral, enhance our equity and liquidity, increase our interest payments, pay down our indebtedness to a level where we are in compliance with our loan covenants, sell vessels in our fleet, or they could accelerate
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our indebtedness, any of which would impair our ability to continue to conduct our business. If our indebtedness is accelerated, we might not be able to refinance our debt or obtain additional financing and could lose our vessels if our lenders foreclose on their liens. In addition, if we find it necessary to sell our vessels at a time when vessel prices are low, we will recognize losses and a reduction in our earnings, which could affect our ability to raise additional capital necessary for us to comply with our loan agreements.
Furthermore, certain of our credit facilities contain a cross-default provision that may be triggered by a default under one of our other credit facilities. A cross-default provision means that a default on one loan would result in a default on certain of our other loans. Because of the presence of cross-default provisions in certain of our credit facilities, the refusal of any one lender under our credit facilities to grant or extend a waiver could result in certain of our indebtedness being accelerated, even if our other lenders under our credit facilities have waived covenant defaults under the respective credit facilities. If our secured indebtedness is accelerated in full or in part, it would be very difficult for us to refinance our debt or obtain additional financing and we could lose our vessels securing our credit facilities if our lenders foreclose their liens, which would adversely affect our ability to conduct our business.

Also, any contemplated vessel acquisitions will have to be at levels that do not impair the required ratios set out above. The global economic downturn that occurred within the past several years had an adverse effect on vessel values, which may occur again if an economic slowdown arises in the future. If the estimated asset values of the vessels in our fleet decrease, such decreases may limit the amounts we can draw down under our future credit facilities to purchase additional vessels and our ability to expand our fleet. In addition, we may be obligated to prepay part of our outstanding debt in order to remain in compliance with the relevant covenants in our current or future credit facilities. If funds under our current or future credit facilities become unavailable as a result of a breach of our covenants or otherwise, we may not be able to perform our business strategy, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition and our ability to pay dividends.

We may be unable to successfully compete with other vessel operators for charters, which could adversely affect our results of operations and financial position.

The operation of dry bulk vessels and transportation of dry bulk cargoes is extremely competitive. Competition for the transportation of dry bulk cargoes by sea is intense and depends on price, location, size, age, condition and the acceptability of the vessel and its operators to the charterers. Through our operating subsidiaries, we compete with other vessel owners, and, to a lesser extent, owners of other size vessels. The dry bulk market is highly fragmented. Due in part to the highly fragmented market, competitors with greater resources could enter the dry bulk shipping industry and operate larger fleets through consolidations or acquisitions and may be able to offer lower charter rates and higher quality vessels than we are able to offer. As a result, we cannot assure you that we will be successful in finding continued timely employment of our existing vessels.
Our results of operations are subject to seasonal fluctuations, which may adversely affect our financial condition.

We operate our dry bulk vessels in markets that have historically exhibited seasonal variations in demand and, as a result, in charter hire rates. The dry bulk sector is typically stronger in the fall and winter months in anticipation of increased consumption of coal and other raw materials in the Northern Hemisphere. The celebration of Chinese New Year in the first quarter of each year, also results in lower volumes of seaborne trade into China during this period. In addition, unpredictable weather patterns in these months tend to disrupt vessel scheduling and supplies of certain commodities. This seasonality may result in quarter-to-quarter volatility in our revenues and operating results, which could affect our ability to pay dividends, if any, in the future.

A drop in spot charter rates may provide an incentive for some charterers to default on their charters.

When we enter into a time charter, charter rates under that charter may be fixed for the term of the charter. Seven of our vessels are currently on a fixed rate time charters with longer duration of more than eleven months from the date of this annual report. If the spot charter rates or short-term time charter rates in the dry bulk shipping industry become significantly lower than the time charter equivalent rates that some of our charterers are obligated to pay us under our existing charters, the charterers may have incentive to default under that charter or attempt to renegotiate the charter. If our charterers fail to pay their obligations, we would have to attempt to re-charter our vessels at lower charter rates, which would affect our ability to comply with our loan covenants and operate our vessels profitably. If we are not able to comply with our loan covenants and our lenders choose to accelerate our indebtedness and foreclose their liens, we could be required to sell vessels in our fleet and our ability to continue to conduct our business would be impaired.
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Our fixed rate time charters may limit our ability to benefit from any improvement in charter rates, and at the same time, our revenues may be adversely affected if we do not successfully employ our vessels on the expiration of our charters.

Seven of our vessels are currently on a fixed rate time charters with longer duration of more than eleven months from the date of this annual report. Although our fixed rate time charters generally provide reliable revenues, they also limit the portion of our fleet available for spot market voyages during an upswing in the dry bulk industry cycle, when spot market voyages might be more profitable. By the same token, we cannot assure you that we will be able to successfully employ our vessels in the future or renew our existing charters at rates sufficient to allow us to operate our business profitably or meet our obligations. A decline in charter or spot rates or a failure to successfully charter our vessels could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We are subject to certain risks with respect to our counterparties on contracts, and failure of such counterparties to meet their obligations could cause us to suffer losses or otherwise adversely affect our business.

We have entered, and may enter in the future, into various contracts, including charter parties with our customers, loan agreements with our lenders, and vessel management, pooling arrangements, newbuilding contracts and other agreements with other entities, which subject us to counterparty risks. The ability of each of the counterparties to perform its obligations under a contract with us or contracts entered into on our behalf will depend on a number of factors that are beyond our control and may include, among other things, general economic conditions, the condition of the shipping sector, the overall financial condition of the counterparty, charter rates received for our vessels and the supply and demand for commodities. Should a counterparty fail to honor its obligations under any such contract, we could sustain significant losses which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Charterers are sensitive to the commodity markets and may be impacted by market forces affecting commodities. In addition, in depressed market conditions, charterers may have incentive to renegotiate their charters or default on their obligations under charters. Should a charterer in the future fail to honor its obligations under agreements with us, it may be difficult to secure substitute employment for such vessel, and any new charter arrangements we secure on the spot market or on charters may be at lower rates, depending on the then existing charter rate levels, compared to the rates currently being charged for our vessels. In addition, if the charterer of a vessel in our fleet that is used as collateral under one or more of our loan agreements defaults on its charter obligations to us, such default may constitute an event of default under our loan agreements, which may allow the bank to exercise remedies under our loan agreements. If our charterers fail to meet their obligations to us or attempt to renegotiate our charter agreements, we could sustain significant losses which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and compliance with covenants in our loan agreements.
Our ability to obtain additional debt financing may be dependent on the performance of our then existing charterers and their creditworthiness.
The actual or perceived credit quality of our charterers, and any defaults by them, may materially affect our ability to obtain the additional capital resources required to purchase additional vessels or may significantly increase our costs of obtaining such capital. Our inability to obtain additional financing at anticipated costs or at all may materially affect our results of operations and our ability to implement our business strategy.
Our financing arrangements have floating interest rates, which could negatively affect our financial performance as a result of interest rate fluctuations.
As certain of our current financing agreements have, and our future financing arrangements may have, floating interest rates, typically based on LIBOR, movements in interest rates could negatively affect our financial performance.
In order to manage our exposure to interest rate fluctuations, we may from time to time use interest rate derivatives to effectively fix some of our floating rate debt obligations. No assurance can however be given that the use of these derivative instruments, if any, may affectively protect us from adverse interest rate movements. The use of interest rate derivatives may affect our results through mark to market valuation of these derivatives. Also, adverse movements in interest rate derivatives may require us to post cash as collateral, which may impact our free cash position.
Volatility in the London Interbank Offered Rate, or LIBOR, could affect our profitability, earnings and cash flow.
LIBOR may be volatile, with the spread between LIBOR and the prime lending rate widening significantly at times. These conditions are the result of disruptions in the international markets. At times when we have loans outstanding which are based on LIBOR, the interest rates borne by such loan facilities fluctuate with changes in LIBOR, and this would affect the amount of
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interest payable on our debt, which, in turn, could have an adverse effect on our profitability, earnings and cash flow. Due in part to uncertainty relating to the LIBOR calculation process in recent years, it is likely that LIBOR will be phased out in the future. As a result, lenders have insisted on provisions that entitle the lenders, in their discretion, to replace published LIBOR as the base for the interest calculation with their cost-of-funds rate. If we are required to agree to such a provision in future loan agreements, our lending costs could increase significantly, which would also have an adverse effect on our profitability, earnings and cash flow.
In addition, the banks currently reporting information used to set LIBOR will likely stop such reporting after 2021, when their commitment to reporting information ends. For example, on July 27, 2017, the U.K. Financial Conduct Authority announced that it will no longer persuade or compel banks to submit rates for the calculation of the LIBOR rates after 2021 (the ‘‘FCA Announcement’’). The Alternative Reference Rate Committee, a committee convened by the U.S. Federal Reserve that includes major market participants, has proposed an alternative rate to replace U.S. Dollar LIBOR: the Secured Overnight Financing Rate, or “SOFR.” The impact of such a transition from LIBOR to SOFR could be significant for us.
We are unable to predict the effect of the FCA Announcement or other reforms, whether currently enacted or enacted in the future. They may result in the phasing out of LIBOR as a reference rate. The impact of such transition away from LIBOR could be significant for us because of the number of our financing arrangements that are linked to LIBOR and our substantial indebtedness. The outcome of reforms may result in increased interest expense to us, may affect our ability to incur debt on terms acceptable to us and may result in increased costs related to amending our existing debt instruments, which could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Certain of our directors, executive officers and major shareholders may have interests that are different from the interests of our other shareholders.

Certain of our directors, executive officers and major shareholders may have interests that are different from, or are in addition to, the interests of our other shareholders. In particular, Hemen Holding Limited ("Hemen"), a company indirectly controlled by trusts established by Mr. Fredriksen, our director, for the benefit of his immediate family and certain of its affiliates, may be deemed to beneficially own approximately 39.9% of our issued and outstanding common shares.
Hemen is also a principal shareholder of a number of other large publicly traded companies involved in various sectors of the shipping and oil services industries (the "Hemen Related Companies"). In addition, certain of our directors, including Mr. Lorentzon, Mr. Fredriksen, Mr. O'Shaughnessy and Mr. Svelland, also serve on the boards of one or more of the Hemen Related Companies, including but not limited to, Frontline Ltd. (NYSE:FRO) ("Frontline"), SFL Corporation Ltd. (NYSE:SFL) ("SFL"), Archer Limited (OSE:ARCHER), Avance Gas Holding Ltd. (OSE:AGAS) ("Avance") and Flex LNG Ltd. (OSE:FLNG) ("FLEX"). There may be real or apparent conflicts of interest with respect to matters affecting Hemen and other Hemen Related Companies whose interests in some circumstances may be adverse to our interests.

To the extent that we do business with or compete with other Hemen Related Companies for business opportunities, prospects or financial resources, or participate in ventures in which other Hemen Related Companies may participate, these directors and officers may face actual or apparent conflicts of interest in connection with decisions that could have different implications for us. These decisions may relate to corporate opportunities, corporate strategies, potential acquisitions of businesses, newbuilding acquisitions, inter-company agreements, the issuance or disposition of securities, the election of new or additional directors and other matters. Such potential conflicts may delay or limit the opportunities available to us, and it is possible that conflicts may be resolved in a manner adverse to us or result in agreements that are less favorable to us than terms that would be obtained in arm's-length negotiations with unaffiliated third-parties.
We are dependent on the success and profitability of the pools in which our vessels operate.
We are party to the pooling arrangements pursuant to which the profitability of our vessels operating in these vessel pools is dependent upon the pool managers’ and other pool participants’ ability to successfully implement a profitable chartering strategy, which could include, among other things, obtaining favorable charters and employing vessels in the pool efficiently in order to service those charters. As of the date of this annual report, 28 of our vessels operate under a revenue sharing agreement or pool arrangement ("RSA"). If vessels from other pool participants that enter into pools in which we participate are not of comparable design or quality to our vessels, or if the owners of such other vessels negotiate for greater pool weightings than those obtained by us, this could negatively impact the profitability of the pools in which we may participate or our profitability or dilute our interest in the pool's profits.
Further, in addition to bearing charterer credit risk indirectly, we may also face credit risk from our pool managers and other pool participants. Not all pool managers or pool participants will necessarily provide detailed financial information regarding
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their operations. As a result, pool manager and other pool participant risk is largely assessed on the basis of the reputation of our pool managers and other pool participants in the market, and even on that basis, there is no assurance that they can or will fulfill their obligations under the contracts we may enter into with them. As such, pool managers and other pool participants may fail to fulfill their obligations to us. Should a pool manager or other pool participant fail to honor its obligations under agreements with us, we may have to withdraw our vessels from the pool and it may be difficult to secure substitute employment for our vessels, and any new charter arrangements we secure on the spot market, on time charters or in alternative pooling arrangements may be at lower rates or on less favorable terms, depending on the then existing charter rate levels, compared to the rates currently being charged for our vessels, and other market conditions. If our pool managers or other pool participants fail to meet their obligations to us, we could sustain significant losses, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
We may not be able to implement our strategy successfully.
Our long term intention is to renew and grow our fleet through selective acquisitions of dry bulk tonnage. Our business plan will therefore depend upon our ability to identify and acquire suitable vessels to grow our fleet in the future and successfully employ our vessels.
Growing any business by acquisition presents numerous risks, including undisclosed liabilities and obligations, difficulty obtaining additional qualified personnel and managing relationships with customers and suppliers. In addition, competition from other companies, many of which may have significantly greater financial resources than us, may reduce our acquisition opportunities or cause us to pay higher prices. We cannot assure you that we will be successful in executing our plans to establish and grow our business or that we will not incur significant expenses and losses in connection with these plans. Our failure to effectively identify, purchase, develop and integrate any vessels could impede our ability to establish our operations or implement our growth successfully. Our acquisition growth strategy exposes us to risks that may harm our business, financial condition and operating results, including risks that we may:
fail to realize anticipated benefits, such as cost savings or cash flow enhancements;
incur or assume unanticipated liabilities, losses or costs associated with any vessels or businesses acquired, particularly if any vessel we acquire proves not to be in good condition;
be unable to hire, train or retain qualified shore and seafaring personnel to manage and operate our growing business and fleet;
decrease our liquidity by using a significant portion of available cash or borrowing capacity to finance acquisitions;
significantly increase our interest expense or financial leverage if we incur debt to finance acquisitions; or
incur other significant charges, such as impairment of goodwill or other intangible assets, asset devaluation or restructuring charges.

Purchasing and operating secondhand vessels may result in increased drydocking costs and vessels off-hire, which could adversely affect our earnings.

Our long term business strategy also includes growth through the acquisition of previously owned vessels. Even following a physical inspection of secondhand vessels prior to purchase, we do not have the same knowledge about their condition and cost of any required (or anticipated) repairs than we would have had if these vessels had been built for and operated exclusively by us. Accordingly, we may not discover defects or other problems with such vessels prior to purchase. Any such hidden defects or problems, when detected, may be expensive to repair, and if not detected, may result in accidents or other incidents for which we may become liable to third parties. Also, when purchasing previously owned vessels, we do not receive the benefit of any builder warranties if the vessels we buy are older than one year.
We have recently entered into agreements, subject to definitive loan and other final documentation and other customary closing conditions, to acquire 18 dry bulk vessels (the “Vessel Acquisition”) from affiliates of Hemen, the Company’s largest shareholder. No vessels have been delivered as of the date of this report, and all acquired vessels are scheduled to be delivered sometime in 2021.

In general, the costs to maintain a vessel in good operating condition increase with the age of the vessel. As of the date of this annual report, the average age of our dry bulk vessel fleet excluding the vessels acquired in the Vessel Acquisition is approximately 7.8 years. After completion of the Vessel Acquisition, average age of our dry bulk vessels will be reduced to 6.5 years. As our fleet ages, we will incur increased costs. Older vessels are typically less fuel efficient than more recently constructed vessels due to improvements in engine and hull technology. Governmental regulations, safety and other equipment standards related to the age of vessels may require expenditures for alterations or the addition of new equipment to some of our vessels and may restrict the type of activities in which these vessels may engage. We cannot assure you that, as our vessels age,
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market conditions will justify those expenditures or enable us to operate our vessels profitably during the remainder of their useful lives. As a result, regulations and standards could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
New vessels may experience initial operational difficulties and unexpected incremental start-up costs.
New vessels, during their initial period of operation, have the possibility of encountering structural, mechanical and electrical problems as well as unexpected incremental start-up costs. Typically, the purchaser of a newbuilding will receive the benefit of a warranty from the shipyard for newbuildings, but we cannot assure you that any warranty we obtain will be able to resolve any problem with the vessel without additional costs to us and off-hire periods for the vessel. Upon delivery of a completed newbuilding from a shipyard, we may incur operating expenses above the incremental start-up costs typically associated with such a delivery and such expenses may include, among others, additional crew training, consumables and spares.
The operation of dry bulk vessels involves certain unique operational risks.
The operation of dry bulk vessels has certain unique operational risks. With a dry bulk vessel, the cargo itself and its interaction with the ship can be a risk factor. By their nature, dry bulk cargoes are often heavy, dense and easily shifted, and react badly to water exposure. In addition, dry bulk vessels are often subjected to battering treatment during unloading operations with grabs, jackhammers (to pry encrusted cargoes out of the hold), and small bulldozers. This treatment may cause damage to the dry bulk vessel. Dry bulk vessels damaged due to treatment during unloading procedures may be more susceptible to a breach at sea. Hull breaches in dry bulk vessels may lead to the flooding of their holds. If a dry bulk vessel suffers flooding in its forward holds, the bulk cargo may become so dense and waterlogged that its pressure may buckle the dry bulk vessel's bulkheads leading to the loss of the dry bulk vessel. These risks may also impact the risk of loss of life or harm to our crew.
If we are unable to adequately maintain or safeguard our vessels, we may be unable to prevent these events. Any of these circumstances or events could negatively impact our business, financial condition or results of operations. In addition, the loss of any of our vessels could harm our crew and our reputation as a safe and reliable vessel owner and operator.
Rising fuel, or bunker, prices may adversely affect our profits.
Since we primarily employ our vessels in the spot market, we expect that fuel, or bunkers, will typically be the largest expense in our shipping operations for our vessels. While we believe that we can transfer increased cost to the customer, and will experience a competitive advantage as a result of increased bunker prices due to the greater fuel efficiency of our vessels compared to the average global fleet, changes in the price of fuel may adversely affect our profitability. The price and supply of fuel is unpredictable and fluctuates based on events outside our control, including geopolitical developments, supply and demand for oil and gas, actions by the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (the "OPEC"), and other oil and gas producers, war and unrest in oil producing countries and regions, regional production patterns and environmental concerns. Fuel may therefore become much more expensive in the future and we might not be able to fully recover this increased cost through our charter rates.
Operational risks and damage to our vessels could adversely impact our performance.
Our vessels and their cargoes are at risk of being damaged or lost because of events such as marine disasters, bad weather and other acts of God, business interruptions caused by mechanical failures, grounding, fire, explosions and collisions, human error, war, terrorism, piracy, labor strikes, boycotts and other circumstances or events. These hazards may result in death or injury to persons, loss of revenues or property, the payment of ransoms, environmental damage, higher insurance rates, damage to our customer relationships and market disruptions, delay or rerouting. Epidemics and other public health incidents may also lead to crew member illness, which can disrupt the operations of our vessels, or to public health measures, which may prevent our vessels from calling on ports or discharging cargo in the affected areas or in other locations after having visited the affected areas. In addition, our results of operations could be adversely affected to the extent that any of such epidemics and public health incidents, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, harms the global economy and the Chinese economy in particular.

If our vessels suffer damage, they may need to be repaired at a drydocking facility. The costs of drydock repairs are unpredictable and may be substantial. We may have to pay drydocking costs that our insurance does not cover at all or in full. The loss of revenues while these vessels are being repaired and repositioned, as well as the actual cost of these repairs, may adversely affect our business and financial condition. In addition, space at drydocking facilities is sometimes limited and not all drydocking facilities are conveniently located. We may be unable to find space at a suitable drydocking facility or our vessels may be forced to travel to a drydocking facility that is not conveniently located relative to our vessels' positions. The loss of
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earnings while these vessels are forced to wait for space or to travel to more distant drydocking facilities may adversely affect our business and financial condition.
Further, the loss of any of our vessels could harm our reputation as a safe and reliable vessel owner and operator. If we are unable to adequately maintain or safeguard our vessels, we may be unable to prevent any such damage, costs or loss, which could negatively impact our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
We rely on our information systems to conduct our business, and failure to protect these systems against security breaches could adversely affect our business and results of operations, including on our vessels. Additionally, if these systems fail or become unavailable for any significant period of time, our business could be harmed.

We rely on our computer systems and network infrastructure across our operations, including on our vessels. The safety and security of our vessels and efficient operation of our business, including processing, transmitting and storing electronic and financial information, are dependent on computer hardware and software systems, which are increasingly vulnerable to security breaches and other disruptions. Any significant interruption or failure of our information systems or any significant breach of security could adversely affect our business and results of operations.

Our vessels rely on information systems for a significant part of their operations, including navigation, provision of services, propulsion, machinery management, power control, communications and cargo management. We have in place safety and security measures on our vessels and onshore operations to secure our vessels against cyber-security attacks and any disruption to their information systems. However, these measures and technology may not adequately prevent security breaches despite our continuous efforts to upgrade and address the latest known threats. A disruption to the information system of any of our vessels could lead to, among other things, wrong routing, collision, grounding and propulsion failure.

Beyond our vessels, we rely on industry accepted security measures and technology to securely maintain confidential and proprietary information maintained on our information systems. However, these measures and technology may not adequately prevent security breaches. The technology and other controls and processes designed to secure our confidential and proprietary information, detect and remedy any unauthorized access to that information were designed to obtain reasonable, but not absolute, assurance that such information is secure and that any unauthorized access is identified and addressed appropriately. Such controls may in the future fail to prevent or detect, unauthorized access to our confidential and proprietary information. In addition, the foregoing events could result in violations of applicable privacy and other laws. If confidential information is inappropriately accessed and used by a third party or an employee for illegal purposes, we may be responsible to the affected individuals for any losses they may have incurred as a result of misappropriation. In such an instance, we may also be subject to regulatory action, investigation or liable to a governmental authority for fines or penalties associated with a lapse in the integrity and security of our information systems.

Our operations, including our vessels, and business administration could be targeted by individuals or groups seeking to sabotage or disrupt such systems and networks, or to steal data, and these systems may be damaged, shutdown or cease to function properly (whether by planned upgrades, force majeure, telecommunications failures, hardware or software break-ins or viruses, other cyber-security incidents or otherwise). For example, the information systems of our vessels may be subject to threats from hostile cyber or physical attacks, phishing attacks, human errors of omission or commission, structural failures of resources we control, including hardware and software, and accidents and other failures beyond our control. The threats to our information systems are constantly evolving, and have become increasingly complex and sophisticated. Furthermore, such threats change frequently and are often not recognized or detected until after they have been launched, and therefore, we may be unable to anticipate these threats and may not become aware in a timely manner of such a security breach, which could exacerbate any damage we experience.

We may be required to expend significant capital and other resources to protect against and remedy any potential or existing security breaches and their consequences. A cyber-attack could result in significant expenses to investigate and repair security breaches or system damages and could lead to litigation, fines, other remedial action, heightened regulatory scrutiny and diminished customer confidence. In addition, our remediation efforts may not be successful and we may not have adequate insurance to cover these losses.

The unavailability of the information systems or the failure of these systems to perform as anticipated for any reason could disrupt our business and could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.

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Increased inspection procedures, tighter import and export controls and new security regulations could increase costs and cause disruption of our business.
International shipping is subject to security and customs inspection and related procedures in countries of origin, destination and trans-shipment points. Under the U.S. Maritime Transportation Security Act of 2002 (the "MTSA"), the USCG issued regulations requiring the implementation of certain security requirements aboard vessels operating in waters subject to the jurisdiction of the United States and at certain ports and facilities. These security procedures can result in delays in the loading, offloading or trans-shipment and the levying of customs duties, fines or other penalties against exporters or importers and, in some cases, carriers. Future changes to the existing security procedures may be implemented that could affect the dry bulk sector. These changes have the potential to impose additional financial and legal obligations on carriers and, in certain cases, to render the shipment of certain types of goods uneconomical or impractical. These additional costs could reduce the volume of goods shipped, resulting in a decreased demand for vessels and have a negative effect on our business, revenues and customer relations.
Failure to comply with the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act could result in fines, criminal penalties and an adverse effect on our business.
We may operate in a number of countries throughout the world, including countries known to have a reputation for corruption. We are committed to doing business in accordance with applicable anti-corruption laws and have adopted a code of business conduct and ethics which is consistent and in full compliance with the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977 (the "U.S Foreign Corrupt Practices Act"), and other anti-bribery legislation. We are subject, however, to the risk that we, our affiliated entities or our or their respective officers, directors, employees and agents may take actions determined to be in violation of such anti-corruption laws, including the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Any such violation could result in substantial fines, sanctions, civil and/or criminal penalties, curtailment of operations in certain jurisdictions, and might adversely affect our business, results of operations or financial condition. In addition, actual or alleged violations could damage our reputation and ability to do business. Furthermore, detecting, investigating, and resolving actual or alleged violations is expensive and can consume significant time and attention of our senior management. Though we have implemented monitoring procedures and required policies, guidelines, contractual terms and audits, these measures may not prevent or detect failures by our agents or intermediaries regarding compliance.

Incurrence of expenses or liabilities may reduce or eliminate distributions.
The amount and timing of cash distributions in the future will depend, among other things, on our compliance with covenants in our credit facilities, earnings, financial condition, cash position, Bermuda law affecting the payment of distributions, restrictions in our financing agreements and other factors. We could also incur other expenses or contingent liabilities that would reduce or eliminate the cash available for distribution by us as cash distributions. In addition, the declaration and payment of cash distributions is subject at all times to the discretion of our Board. We cannot assure you that it will pay cash distributions.

We may be subject to litigation that, if not resolved in our favor and not sufficiently insured against, could have a material adverse effect on us.
We may be, from time to time, involved in various litigation matters. These matters may include, among other things, contract disputes, shareholder litigation, personal injury claims, environmental claims or proceedings, asbestos and other toxic tort claims, employment matters, governmental claims for taxes or duties, and other litigation that arises in the ordinary course of our business. Although we intend to defend these matters vigorously, we cannot predict with certainty the outcome or effect of any claim or other litigation matter, and the ultimate outcome of any litigation or the potential costs to resolve them may have a material adverse effect on us. Insurance may not be applicable or sufficient in all cases and/or insurers may not remain solvent which may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition.
If we do not set aside funds and are unable to borrow or raise funds for vessel replacement at the end of a vessel's useful life, our revenue will decline, which would adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
If we do not set aside funds and are unable to borrow or raise funds for vessel replacement, we will be unable to replace the vessels in our fleet upon the expiration of their remaining useful lives. Our cash flows and income are dependent on the revenues earned by the chartering of our vessels. If we are unable to replace the vessels in our fleet upon the expiration of their useful lives, our business, results of operations and financial condition would be adversely affected. Any funds set aside for vessel replacement will not be available for cash distributions.
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We may not have adequate insurance to compensate us if our vessels are damaged or lost.
In the event of a casualty to a vessel or other catastrophic event, we rely on our insurance to pay the insured value of the vessel or the damages incurred. We procure insurance for our fleet against those risks that we believe companies in the shipping industry commonly insure. These insurances include hull and machinery insurance, protection and indemnity insurance, which include environmental damage and pollution insurance coverage, and war risk insurance. We can give no assurance that we will be adequately insured against all risks and we cannot guarantee that any particular claim will be paid, even if we have previously recorded a receivable or revenue in respect of such claim. Our insurance policies may contain deductibles for which we will be responsible and limitations and exclusions, which may increase our costs or lower our revenues.

We cannot assure you that we will be able to obtain adequate insurance coverage for our vessels in the future or renew our existing policies on the same or commercially reasonable terms, or at all. For example, more stringent environmental regulations have in the past led to increased costs for, and in the future may result in the lack of availability of, protection and indemnity insurance against risks of environmental damage or pollution. Any uninsured or underinsured loss could harm our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition. In addition, our insurance may be voidable by the insurers as a result of certain of our actions, such as our vessels failing to maintain certification with applicable maritime self-regulatory organizations. Further, we cannot assure you that our insurance policies will cover all losses that we incur, or that disputes over insurance claims will not arise with our insurance carriers. Any claims covered by insurance would be subject to deductibles, and since it is possible that a large number of claims may be brought, the aggregate amount of these deductibles could be material. In addition, our insurance policies may be subject to limitations and exclusions, which may increase our costs or lower our revenues, thereby possibly having a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.

We may be subject to calls because we obtain some of our insurance through protection and indemnity associations.
We may be subject to increased premium payments, or calls, if the value of our claim records, the claim records of our fleet managers, and/or the claim records of other members of the protection and indemnity associations through which we receive insurance coverage for tort liability (including pollution-related liability) significantly exceed projected claims. Our payment of these calls could result in significant expense to us, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition. In addition, our protection and indemnity associations may not have enough resources to cover claims made against them.
We are a holding company, and depend on the ability of our subsidiaries to distribute funds to us in order to satisfy our financial obligations.
We are a holding company and our subsidiaries conduct all of our operations and own all of our operating assets. We have no significant assets other than the equity interests in our subsidiaries. Our ability to satisfy our financial obligations in the future depends on our subsidiaries and their ability to distribute funds to us. If we are unable to obtain funds from our subsidiaries, we may not be able to satisfy our financial obligations.
The international nature of our operations may make the outcome of any bankruptcy proceedings difficult to predict.
We are incorporated under the laws of Bermuda and conduct operations in countries around the world. Consequently, in the event of any bankruptcy, insolvency, liquidation, dissolution, reorganization or similar proceeding involving us or any of our subsidiaries, bankruptcy laws other than those of the United States could apply. If we become a debtor under U.S. bankruptcy law, bankruptcy courts in the United States may seek to assert jurisdiction over all of our assets, wherever located, including property situated in other countries. There can be no assurance, however, that we would become a debtor in the United States, or that a U.S. bankruptcy court would be entitled to, or accept, jurisdiction over such a bankruptcy case, or that courts in other countries that have jurisdiction over us and our operations would recognize a U.S. bankruptcy court's jurisdiction if any other bankruptcy court would determine it had jurisdiction.
United States tax authorities could treat us as a "passive foreign investment company", which could have adverse United States federal income tax consequences to United States shareholders.
A foreign corporation will be treated as a "passive foreign investment company" ("PFIC"), for United States federal income tax purposes if either (1) at least 75% of its gross income for any taxable year consists of certain types of "passive income" or (2) at least 50% of the average value of the corporation's assets produce or are held for the production of those types of "passive income". For purposes of these tests, "passive income" includes cash distributions, interest, and gains from the sale or exchange of investment property and rents and royalties other than rents and royalties which are received from unrelated parties in
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connection with the active conduct of a trade or business. For purposes of these tests, income derived from the performance of services does not constitute "passive income". United States shareholders of a PFIC are subject to a disadvantageous United States federal income tax regime with respect to the distributions they receive from the PFIC and the gain, if any, they derive from the sale or other disposition of their shares in the PFIC.
Based on our current and proposed method of operation, we do not believe that we are or that we have been since the beginning of our 2004 taxable year, or that we will be a PFIC with respect to any taxable year. In this regard, we intend to treat the gross income we derive or are deemed to derive from our time chartering and voyage chartering activities as services income, rather than rental income. Accordingly, we believe that our income from these activities does not constitute "passive income", and the assets that we own and operate in connection with the production of that income do not constitute assets that produce, or are held for the production of, "passive income".
Although there is no direct legal authority under the PFIC rules addressing our method of operation there is substantial legal authority supporting our position consisting of case law and United States Internal Revenue Service (the "IRS"), pronouncements concerning the characterization of income derived from time charters and voyage charters as services income for other tax purposes. However, it should be noted that there is also authority that characterizes time charter income as rental income rather than services income for other tax purposes. Accordingly, no assurance can be given that the IRS or a court of law will accept our position, and there is a risk that the IRS or a court of law could determine that we are a PFIC. Moreover, no assurance can be given that we would not constitute a PFIC for any future taxable year if there were to be changes in the nature and extent of our operations.
If the IRS were to find that we are or have been a PFIC for any taxable year, our United States shareholders will face adverse United States federal income tax consequences. Under the PFIC rules, unless those shareholders make an election available under United States Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the "Code") (which election could itself have adverse consequences for such shareholders, as discussed below under "Taxation-United States Federal Income Tax Considerations"), such shareholders would be liable to pay United States federal income tax at the then prevailing income tax rates on ordinary income plus interest upon excess distributions and upon any gain from the disposition of our common shares, as if the excess distribution or gain had been recognized ratably over the shareholder's holding period of our common shares.
We may have to pay tax on United States source income, which would reduce our earnings.
Under the Code, 50% of the gross shipping income of a vessel owning or chartering corporation, such as ourselves and our subsidiaries, that is attributable to transportation that begins or ends, but that does not both begin and end, in the United States, may be subject to a 4% United States federal income tax without allowance for deduction, unless that corporation qualifies for exemption from tax under Section 883 of the Code and the applicable Treasury Regulations promulgated thereunder.
We believe that we and each of our subsidiaries qualified for this statutory tax exemption for our taxable year ending on December 31, 2020 and we will take this position for United States federal income tax return reporting purposes. However, there are factual circumstances beyond our control that could cause us to lose the benefit of this tax exemption for future taxable years and thereby become subject to United States federal income tax on our United States source shipping income. For example, we would no longer qualify for exemption under Section 883 of the Code for a particular taxable year if certain non-qualified shareholders with a 5% or greater interest in our common shares owned, in the aggregate, 50% or more of our outstanding common shares for more than half the days during the taxable year. It is possible that we could be subject to this rule for our taxable year ending on or after December 31, 2021. Due to the factual nature of the issues involved, there can be no assurances on our tax-exempt status or that of any of our subsidiaries.
If we or our subsidiaries are not entitled to exemption under Section 883 of the Code for any taxable year, we, or our subsidiaries, could be subject during those years to an effective 2% United States federal income tax on gross shipping income derived during such a year that is attributable to the transport of cargoes to or from the United States. The imposition of this tax would have a negative effect on our business. However, the amount of our shipping income that would be subject to this tax has historically not been material.
Because our offices and most of our assets are outside the United States, you may not be able to bring suit against us, or enforce a judgment obtained against us in the United States.
Our executive offices, administrative activities and assets are located outside the United States. As a result, it may be more difficult for investors to effect service of process within the United States upon us, or to enforce both in the United States and outside the United States judgments against us in any action, including actions predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the federal securities laws of the United States.
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As an exempted company incorporated under Bermuda law, our operations may be subject to economic substance requirements.
The Economic Substance Act 2018 and the Economic Substance Regulations 2018 of Bermuda (the ''Economic Substance Act'' and the ''Economic Substance Regulations'' respectively) became operative on December 31, 2018. The Economic Substance Act applies to every registered entity in Bermuda that engages in a relevant activity and requires that every such entity shall maintain a substantial economic presence in Bermuda. Relevant activities for the purposes of the Economic Substance Act are banking business, insurance business, fund management business, financing business, leasing business, headquarters business, shipping business, distribution and service center business, intellectual property holding business and conducting business as a holding entity.

The Bermuda Economic Substance Act provides that a registered entity that carries on a relevant activity complies with economic substance requirements if (a) it is directed and managed in Bermuda, (b) its core income-generating activities (as may be prescribed) are undertaken in Bermuda with respect to the relevant activity, (c) it maintains adequate physical presence in Bermuda, (d) it has adequate full time employees in Bermuda with suitable qualifications and (e) it incurs adequate operating expenditure in Bermuda in relation to the relevant activity.

A registered entity that carries on a relevant activity is obliged under the Bermuda Economic Substance Act to file a declaration in the prescribed form (the “Declaration”) with the Registrar of Companies (the “Registrar”) on an annual basis.

If we fail to comply with our obligations under the Bermuda Economic Substance Act or any similar law applicable to us in any other jurisdictions, we could be subject to financial penalties and spontaneous disclosure of information to foreign tax officials in related jurisdictions and may be struck from the register of companies in Bermuda or such other jurisdiction. Any of these actions could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Under the Vessel Acquisition agreement, consummation of the Vessel Acquisition is conditional upon satisfaction of a number of conditions that are beyond our control; the Vessel Acquisition may hence not be consummated and transaction costs will have been incurred for us regardless of whether the Vessel Acquisition is consummated, which could negatively affect our business, results of operation and financial condition.

Consummation of the Vessel Acquisition is conditional upon satisfaction of certain conditions, the satisfaction of which are beyond our control. For example, the closing of the Vessel Acquisition is subject to execution of definitive loan and other final documents, customary closing conditions and regulatory approvals. If the Vessel Acquisition is not consummated, transaction costs, including costs of advisors and the use of key management personnel’s time and attention, will have been incurred without the expected benefits and at the expense of other business opportunities. In addition, there will be no realisation of any of the expected benefits of having completed the Vessel Acquisition and failure to complete the Vessel Acquisition could result in a negative perception by our stock market and result in a decline of the market price of the Company’s shares. If any of the above risks materialise, it could negatively affect our business, results of operation and financial condition.

Risks Related to an Investment in Our Securities

Our share price may be highly volatile and future sales of our common shares could cause the market price of our common shares to decline.
Our common shares commenced trading on the NASDAQ Global Select Market (the "NASDAQ") in February 1997 and currently trade under the symbol "GOGL". Beginning on April 7, 2015, our shares have traded on the Oslo Stock Exchange (the "OSE"), under the ticker code "GOGL". We cannot assure you that an active and liquid public market for our common shares will continue. The market price of our common shares has historically fluctuated over a wide range and may continue to fluctuate significantly in response to many factors, such as actual or anticipated fluctuations in our operating results, changes in financial estimates by securities analysts, economic and regulatory trends, general market conditions, rumors and other factors, many of which are beyond our control. If the volatility in the broad stock market worsens, it could have an adverse effect on the market price of our common shares and impact a potential sale price if holders of our common shares decide to sell their shares.

Future issuance of shares or other securities may dilute the holdings of shareholders and could materially affect the price of our common shares.
It is possible that we may in the future decide to offer additional shares or other securities in order to secure financing for new projects, in connection with unanticipated liabilities or expenses or for any other purposes. Any such additional offering could reduce the proportionate ownership and voting interests of holders of our common shares, as well as our earnings per share and
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our net asset value per share, and any offering by us could have a material adverse effect on the market price of our common shares.

ITEM 4.  INFORMATION ON THE COMPANY

A.  HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE COMPANY

History

On September 18, 1996, we were incorporated in Bermuda under the name Knightsbridge Tankers Limited as an exempted company pursuant to the Bermuda Companies Act 1981. In October 2014, we changed our name to Knightsbridge Shipping Limited. Following the completion of the Merger on March 31, 2015, we changed our name to Golden Ocean Group Limited. Our registered and principal executive offices are located at Par-la-Ville Place, 14 Par-la-Ville Road, Hamilton, HM 08, Bermuda, and our telephone number at this location is +1 (441) 295-6935. The SEC maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC. The address of the SEC’s internet site is www.sec.gov. None of the information contained on these websites is incorporated into or forms a part of this annual report.

Our common shares currently trade on the NASDAQ and the OSE under the ticker code "GOGL".

We are engaged primarily in the ownership and operation of dry bulk vessels. We operate through subsidiaries located in Bermuda, Liberia, the Marshall Islands, Norway, and Singapore. We are also involved in the charter, purchase and sale of vessels.

Historical business purpose and the Merger

We were originally established for the purpose of owning and operating five very large crude oil carriers ("VLCCs"). However, we expanded our business to the dry bulk segment from 2009 and onwards by acquiring second hand vessels and by entering into newbuilding contracts. Between 2007 and 2013, we sold our five VLCCs and subsequently discontinued our crude oil tanker operations. In 2014, we made significant expansion in the dry bulk segment by acquiring 29 special purpose companies ("SPCs"), from Frontline 2012 Ltd ("Frontline 2012"), each owning a dry bulk newbuilding, all of which were delivered to us between 2014 and 2018.

On October 7, 2014, we and the Former Golden Ocean entered into the Merger Agreement. The Merger was approved by our shareholders and the shareholders of the Former Golden Ocean at separate special general meetings held on March 26, 2015. In addition, our shareholders approved the adoption of the Amended and Restated Bye-laws. As of March 31, 2015, and following completion of the Merger, we owned 47 vessels and had 25 vessels under construction.

Our Acquisitions, Disposals and Newbuildings

We entered into the following acquisitions and disposals in 2018, 2019, 2020 and 2021 (to date):

In January and February 2018, we took delivery of the Golden Cirrus, Golden Arcus, Golden Cumulus, Golden Incus and Golden Calvus, five Capesize newbuilding vessels.
In August 2018, we sold the Golden Eminence, a Panamax vessel, to an unrelated third party.
In December 2020, we entered into an agreement to sell the Golden Shea, a Panamax vessel, to an unrelated third party for a gross amount of $9.6 million. We recognized a $0.7 million impairment loss in connection with the sale and classified the vessel as held for sale as of December 31, 2020. The vessel is expected to be delivered to its new owners by the end of March 2021, and the net cash flow from the transaction is approximately $4.1 million, out of which $1.4 million has been received in 2020 as a deposit and $2.7 million is expected to be recognized during the first quarter of 2021.
In January 2021, we entered into an agreement to sell the Golden Saguenay, a Panamax vessel, to an unrelated third party for $8.4 million. We expect to record an impairment of approximately $4.2 million from the sale in the first quarter of 2021. The vessel is expected to be delivered to its new owners in the second quarter of 2021, and the estimated total net cash flow from the sale is expected to be approximately $2.9 million.

In February 2021, we repaid the outstanding balance of $50.0 million on the revolving credit facility under $304.0 loan facility.
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In February 2021, we entered into a Heads of Agreement to acquire 18 modern dry bulk vessels for a total consideration of $752 million. The Vessel Acquisition will be financed by $338 million in new equity capital. The vessels will be acquired from affiliates of Hemen Holding Ltd., the Company's largest shareholder. Affiliates of Hemen also agree to provide a $414 million debt facility, representing the balance of the purchase price, with an 18-month tenor. The loan will bear an interest rate of LIBOR plus a margin of 2.35% and shall be repaid in accordance with a 17-year linear repayment profile. The loan facility is contemplated to be refinanced on favorable terms in the international debt market after completion of the transaction. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the closing of the acquisition is subject to customary conditions to closing and entry into final binding loan agreements and other documentation, substantially in accordance with the terms contained in the Heads of Agreement.

In February 2021, we completed a Private Placement, which raised gross proceeds of NOK 2,873 million, or approximately $338 million through the placing of 54,207,547 new shares at a subscription price of NOK 53.00 per offer share. Hemen subscribed for 27,103,773 new shares, equivalent to $169 million. Following issuance of the shares, the Company will have 198,480,244 issued common shares each having a par value of $0.05.


B.  BUSINESS OVERVIEW

We are an international shipping company that owns and operates a fleet of dry bulk vessels, comprising of Newcastlemax, Capesize, Panamax and Ultramax vessels. Our vessels transport a broad range of major and minor bulk commodities, including ores, coal, grains and fertilizers, along worldwide shipping routes. Our vessels operate in the spot and time charter markets.

As of March 18, 2021, we owned 67 dry bulk vessels. Each vessel is owned and operated by one of our subsidiaries and is flagged either in the Marshall Islands, Hong Kong, Panama, or Bahamas. In addition, we had 11 vessels chartered-in (of which seven and one are chartered in on finance leases and operating leases, respectively, from SFL and three chartered in on operating leases from unrelated third parties. Seven of our vessels are chartered-out on fixed rate time charters, 17 of our vessels are chartered out on index linked rate time charters and the remaining 54 vessels operate in the spot market, of which 28 vessels participate under RSAs.

We own various vessel owning and operating subsidiaries. Our operations take place substantially outside of the United States. Our subsidiaries, therefore, own and operate vessels that may be affected by changes in foreign governments and other economic and political conditions. Our vessels operate worldwide and as a result, our management does not, and did not, evaluate performance by geographical region because this information is not meaningful.

The dry bulk shipping industry is highly cyclical, experiencing volatility in profitability, vessel values and freight rates. Freight rates are strongly influenced by the supply of dry bulk vessels and the demand for dry bulk seaborne transportation.
 
Our Business Strategy

Our business strategy is to focus on largest sizes of dry bulk carriers (Capesize and Panamax) with flexibility to adjust our market exposure depending on existing factors such as charter rates, newbuilding costs, vessel resale and scrap values and vessel operating expenses resulting from, among other things, changes in the supply of and demand for dry bulk capacity. We may adjust our exposure through time charters, voyage charters, bareboat charters, sale and leasebacks, sales and purchases of vessels, newbuilding contracts and acquisitions. Our intention is to create shareholder value through sustainable growth.

Our business strategy includes three main pillars (Simplification, Risk Management and Decarbonization) on which we are focusing our efforts: (1) Simplification relates to the increased focus on our core business and our capabilities as a shipowner in large size dry bulk shipping, (2) Risk Management relates our focus on enhancing transparency and accountability through clearly defined risk parameters and (3) Decarbonization and digitalization means enhanced focus on positioning the Company for a low-carbon future by exploring new technologies and optimization tools.

Capesize Chartering Ltd
In February 2015, Capesize Chartering Ltd ("CCL"), a joint venture company was incorporated and in January 2016, the joint venture partners, Golden Ocean, Bocimar International NV, C Transport Holding Ltd and Star Bulk Carriers Corp, entered into a RSA. The purpose of the joint venture is to combine and coordinate the chartering services of all the parties for their participating Capesize dry bulk vessels that are intended to trade on the spot market and ultimately achieve improved scheduling ability and with the overall aim of enhancing economic efficiencies. Each participating vessel owner continues to be responsible for the operating, accounting and technical management of its respective vessels. We currently include 25 of our Capesize vessels in the RSA.
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Management Structure

Overall responsibility for the oversight of the management of our company and its subsidiaries rests with our Board. We operate management services through Golden Ocean Group Management (Bermuda) Ltd, our subsidiary incorporated in Bermuda, which in turn subcontracts services to Golden Ocean Management AS and Golden Ocean Shipping Co. Pte. Ltd., our subsidiaries incorporated in Norway and Singapore, respectively. Our CEO, principal financial officer and principal commercial officer are employed by Golden Ocean Management AS. The Board defines the scope and terms of the services to be provided, including day-to-day operations by the aforementioned subsidiaries, and requires that it be consulted on all matters of material importance and/or of an unusual nature and, for such matters, provides specific authorization to personnel to act on our behalf.

Technical Supervision Services
We receive technical supervision services from Frontline Management (Bermuda) Limited ("Frontline Management"). Pursuant to the terms of the agreement, Frontline Management receives a management fee per vessel per year. This fee is subject to annual review. Frontline Management performs also newbuilding supervision on our behalf and charges us for costs incurred in relation to the supervision. Technical operations and crewing of all owned vessels are outsourced to several leading ship management companies.

Seasonality
 
The dry bulk trade has a history of tracking seasonal demand fluctuations. As China is the most significant market for dry bulk shipping, the public holidays in relation to the Chinese New Year during the first quarter usually results in a decrease in market activity during this period. Also, in the last few years, adverse weather conditions in the Southern Hemisphere, which often occur during the first quarter, have had a negative impact on iron ore and coal exports from Australia and iron ore exports from Brazil.

Grain has traditionally had the greatest impact on the seasonality in the dry bulk market, particularly during the peak demand seasons, which occurs during the second quarter in the Southern Hemisphere and at the end of the third quarter and throughout the fourth quarter in the Northern Hemisphere. The growth of iron ore and coal transportation over the last decade, however, has diminished the relative importance of grain to the dry bulk transportation industry. Since iron ore, like most other commodities, has moved from fixed price agreements between shippers and receivers to spot pricing, short term price fluctuations have had an impact on iron ore trading by reducing normal seasonal patterns. Other factors, however, such as weather and port congestion still impact market volatility.

Customers

For the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, no customer accounted for 10 percent or more of our consolidated revenues. For the year ended December 31, 2018, one customer accounted for 10 percent or more of our consolidated revenues in the amounts of $65.8 million.

Competition

The market for international seaborne dry bulk transportation services is highly fragmented and competitive. Seaborne dry bulk transportation services are generally provided by independent ship-owner fleets. In addition, many owners and operators in the dry bulk sector pool their vessels together on an ongoing basis, and such pools are available to customers to the same extent as independently owned and operated fleets. Competition for charters in the dry bulk market is intense and is based upon price, location, size, age, condition and acceptability of the vessel and its manager. Competition is also affected by the availability of other size vessels to compete in the trades in which we engage. Charters are to a large extent brokered through international independent brokerage houses that specialize in finding the optimal ship for any particular cargo based on the aforementioned criteria. Brokers may be appointed by the cargo shipper or the ship owner.

Environmental and Other Regulations in the Shipping Industry

Government regulation and laws significantly affect the ownership and operation of our fleet. We are subject to international conventions and treaties, national, state and local laws and regulations in force in the countries in which our vessels may operate or are registered relating to safety and health and environmental protection including the storage, handling, emission, transportation and discharge of hazardous and non-hazardous materials, and the remediation of contamination and liability for damage to natural resources. Compliance with such laws, regulations and other requirements entails significant expense, including vessel modifications and implementation of certain operating procedures.
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A variety of government and private entities subject our vessels to both scheduled and unscheduled inspections. These entities include the local port authorities (applicable national authorities such as the USCG, harbor master or equivalent), classification societies, flag state administrations (countries of registry) and charterers, particularly terminal operators. Certain of these entities require us to obtain permits, licenses, certificates and other authorizations for the operation of our vessels. Failure to maintain necessary permits or approvals could require us to incur substantial costs or result in the temporary suspension of the operation of one or more of our vessels.

Increasing environmental concerns have created a demand for vessels that conform to stricter environmental standards. We are required to maintain operating standards for all of our vessels that emphasize operational safety, quality maintenance, continuous training of our officers and crews and compliance with United States and international regulations. We believe that the operation of our vessels is in substantial compliance with applicable environmental laws and regulations and that our vessels have all material permits, licenses, certificates or other authorizations necessary for the conduct of our operations. However, because such laws and regulations frequently change and may impose increasingly stricter requirements, we cannot predict the ultimate cost of complying with these requirements, or the impact of these requirements on the resale value or useful lives of our vessels. In addition, a future serious marine incident that causes significant adverse environmental impact could result in additional legislation or regulation that could negatively affect our profitability.

International Maritime Organization

The IMO, the United Nations agency for maritime safety and the prevention of pollution by vessels (the “IMO”), has adopted the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, as modified by the Protocol of 1978 relating thereto, collectively referred to as MARPOL 73/78 and herein as “MARPOL,” the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea of 1974 (“SOLAS Convention”), and the International Convention on Load Lines of 1966 (the “LL Convention”). MARPOL establishes environmental standards relating to oil leakage or spilling, garbage management, sewage, air emissions, handling and disposal of noxious liquids and the handling of harmful substances in packaged forms. MARPOL is applicable to drybulk, tanker and LNG carriers, among other vessels, and is broken into six Annexes, each of which regulates a different source of pollution. Annex I relates to oil leakage or spilling; Annexes II and III relate to harmful substances carried in bulk in liquid or in packaged form, respectively; Annexes IV and V relate to sewage and garbage management, respectively; and Annex VI, lastly, relates to air emissions. Annex VI was separately adopted by the IMO in September of 1997; new emission standards, titled IMO-2020, took effect on January 1, 2020.

In 2013, the IMO’s Marine Environmental Protection Committee (the "MEPC") adopted a resolution amending MARPOL Annex I Condition Assessment Scheme ("CAS"). These amendments became effective on October 1, 2014, and require compliance with the 2011 International Code on the Enhanced Programme of Inspections during Surveys of Bulk Carriers and Oil Tankers ("ESP Code"), which provides for enhanced inspection programs. We may need to make certain financial expenditures to comply with these amendments.

Air Emissions

In September of 1997, the IMO adopted Annex VI to MARPOL to address air pollution from vessels. Effective May 2005, Annex VI sets limits on sulfur oxide and nitrogen oxide emissions from all commercial vessel exhausts and prohibits “deliberate emissions” of ozone depleting substances (such as halons and chlorofluorocarbons), emissions of volatile compounds from cargo tanks, and the shipboard incineration of specific substances. Annex VI also includes a global cap on the sulfur content of fuel oil and allows for special areas to be established with more stringent controls on sulfur emissions, as explained below. Emissions of “volatile organic compounds” from certain vessels, and the shipboard incineration (from incinerators installed after January 1, 2000) of certain substances (such as polychlorinated biphenyls ("PCBs")) are also prohibited. We believe that all our vessels are currently compliant in all material respects with these regulations.

The Marine Environment Protection Committed ("MEPC"), adopted amendments to Annex VI regarding emissions of sulfur oxide, nitrogen oxide, particulate matter and ozone depleting substances, which entered into force on July 1, 2010. The amended Annex VI seeks to further reduce air pollution by, among other things, implementing a progressive reduction of the amount of sulfur contained in any fuel oil used on board ships. On October 27, 2016, at its 70th session, the MEPC agreed to implement a global 0.5% m/m sulfur oxide emissions limit (reduced from 3.50%) starting from January 1, 2020. This limitation can be met by using low-sulfur compliant fuel oil, alternative fuels, or certain exhaust gas cleaning systems. Once the cap becomes effective, ships will be required to obtain bunker delivery notes and International Air Pollution Prevention (“IAPP”) Certificates from their flag states that specify sulfur content. Additionally, at MEPC 73, amendments to Annex VI to prohibit the carriage of bunkers above 0.5% sulfur on ships were adopted and took effect on March 1, 2020. These regulations subject ocean-going vessels to stringent emissions controls, and may cause us to incur substantial costs.
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Sulfur content standards are even stricter within certain “Emission Control Areas” (“ECAs”). As of January 1, 2015, ships operating within an ECA were not permitted to use fuel with sulfur content in excess of 0.1% m/m. Amended Annex VI establishes procedures for designating new ECAs. Currently, the IMO has designated four ECAs, including specified portions of the Baltic Sea area, North Sea area, North American area and United States Caribbean area. Ocean-going vessels in these areas will be subject to stringent emission controls and may cause us to incur additional costs. Other areas in China are subject to local regulations that impose stricter emission controls. If other ECAs are approved by the IMO, or other new or more stringent requirements relating to emissions from marine diesel engines or port operations by vessels are adopted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”) or the states where we operate, compliance with these regulations could entail significant capital expenditures or otherwise increase the costs of our operations.

Amended Annex VI also establishes new tiers of stringent nitrogen oxide emissions standards for marine diesel engines, depending on their date of installation. At the MEPC meeting held from March to April 2014, amendments to Annex VI were adopted which address the date on which Tier III Nitrogen Oxide ("NOx") standards in ECAs will go into effect. Under the amendments, Tier III NOx standards apply to ships that operate in the North American and U.S. Caribbean Sea ECAs designed for the control of NOx produced by vessels with a marine diesel engine installed and constructed on or after January 1, 2016. Tier III requirements could apply to areas that will be designated for Tier III NOx in the future. At MEPC 70 and MEPC 71, the MEPC approved the North Sea and Baltic Sea as ECAs for nitrogen oxide for ships built on or after January 1, 2021. The EPA promulgated equivalent (and in some senses stricter) emissions standards in 2010. As a result of these designations or similar future designations, we may be required to incur additional operating or other costs.

As part of the wider push towards both the IMO’s 2030 and 2050 greenhouse gas targets, MEPC has agreed draft regulations relating to the Energy Efficiency Existing Ship Index (“EEXI”), to be confirmed at MEPC 76 (June 2021). Once the regulation is approved in the upcoming MEPC 76, the regulations will enter into force from 1st January 2023. Any vessels that will not meet this new EEXI requirement will need to adopt energy-saving/emission reducing technology, through retrofits, to reach compliant levels. This creates a vast array of implications for the shipping industry going forward. Recycling of older ships could accelerate as the investments to comply with regulations are not feasible. One of the most efficient ways of reducing emissions is reducing power, this would in turn limit vessel speed and with that supply. The Company owns one of the most modern and fuel-efficient fleets in the dry bulk industry. Maintaining and improving our position in respect of the above creates a positive outlook for our company in the next 2-5 years.

As determined at the MEPC 70, the new Regulation 22A of MARPOL Annex VI became effective as of March 1, 2018 and requires ships above 5,000 gross tonnage to collect and report annual data on fuel oil consumption to an IMO database, with the first year of data collection having commenced on January 1, 2019. The IMO intends to use such data as the first step in its roadmap (through 2023) for developing its strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from ships, as discussed further below.

As of January 1, 2013, MARPOL made mandatory certain measures relating to energy efficiency for ships. All ships are now required to develop and implement Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plans (“SEEMPS”), and new ships must be designed in compliance with minimum energy efficiency levels per capacity mile as defined by the Energy Efficiency Design Index (“EEDI”). Under these measures, by 2025, all new ships built will be 30% more energy efficient than those built in 2014.

We have incurred increased costs to comply with these revised standards. Additional or new conventions, laws and regulations may be adopted that could require the installation of expensive emission control systems and could adversely affect our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.

Safety Management System Requirements

The SOLAS Convention was amended to address the safe manning of vessels and emergency training drills. The Convention of Limitation of Liability for Maritime Claims (the “LLMC”) sets limitations of liability for a loss of life or personal injury claim or a property claim against ship owners. We believe that our vessels are in substantial compliance with SOLAS and LLMC standards.

Under Chapter IX of the SOLAS Convention, or the International Safety Management Code for the Safe Operation of Ships and for Pollution Prevention (the “ISM Code”), our operations are also subject to environmental standards and requirements. The ISM Code requires the party with operational control of a vessel to develop an extensive safety management system that includes, among other things, the adoption of a safety and environmental protection policy setting forth instructions and procedures for operating its vessels safely and describing procedures for responding to emergencies. We rely upon the safety management system that our managers have developed for compliance with the ISM Code. The failure of a vessel owner or bareboat charterer to comply with the ISM Code may subject such party to increased liability, may decrease available insurance
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coverage for the affected vessels and may result in a denial of access to, or detention in, certain ports. The ISM Code requires that vessel operators obtain a safety management certificate for each vessel they operate. This certificate evidences compliance by a vessel’s management with the ISM Code requirements for a safety management system. No vessel can obtain a safety management certificate unless its manager has been awarded a document of compliance, issued by each flag state, under the ISM Code. Our managers have obtained applicable documents of compliance for their offices and safety management certificates for all of our vessels for which the certificates are required by the IMO. The document of compliance and safety management certificate are renewed as required.

Regulation II-1/3-10 of the SOLAS Convention governs ship construction and stipulates that ships over 150 meters in length must have adequate strength, integrity and stability to minimize risk of loss or pollution. Goal-based standards amendments in SOLAS regulation II-1/3-10 entered into force in 2012, with July 1, 2016 set for application to new oil tankers and bulk carriers. The SOLAS Convention regulation II-1/3-10 on goal-based ship construction standards for bulk carriers and oil tankers, which entered into force on January 1, 2012, requires that all oil tankers and bulk carriers of 150 meters in length and above, for which the building contract is placed on or after July 1, 2016, satisfy applicable structural requirements conforming to the functional requirements of the International Goal-based Ship Construction Standards for Bulk Carriers and Oil Tankers (GBS Standards).

Amendments to the SOLAS Convention Chapter VII apply to vessels transporting dangerous goods and require those vessels be in compliance with the International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code (“IMDG Code”). Effective January 1, 2018, the IMDG Code includes (1) updates to the provisions for radioactive material, reflecting the latest provisions from the International Atomic Energy Agency, (2) new marking, packing and classification requirements for dangerous goods, and (3) new mandatory training requirements. Amendments which took effect on January 1, 2020 also reflect the latest material from the UN Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods, including (1) new provisions regarding IMO type 9 tank, (2) new abbreviations for segregation groups, and (3) special provisions for carriage of lithium batteries and of vehicles powered by flammable liquid or gas.

The IMO has also adopted the International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers (“STCW”). As of February 2017, all seafarers are required to meet the STCW standards and be in possession of a valid STCW certificate. Flag states that have ratified SOLAS and STCW generally employ the classification societies, which have incorporated SOLAS and STCW requirements into their class rules, to undertake surveys to confirm compliance.

The IMO's Maritime Safety Committee and MEPC, respectively, each adopted relevant parts of the International Code for Ships Operating in Polar Water (the “Polar Code”). The Polar Code, which entered into force on January 1, 2017, covers design, construction, equipment, operational, training, search and rescue as well as environmental protection matters relevant to ships operating in the waters surrounding the two poles. It also includes mandatory measures regarding safety and pollution prevention as well as recommendatory provisions. The Polar Code applies to new ships constructed after January 1, 2017, and after January1, 2018, ships constructed before January 1, 2017 are required to meet the relevant requirements by the earlier of their first intermediate or renewal survey.

Furthermore, recent action by the IMO’s Maritime Safety Committee and United States agencies indicates that cybersecurity regulations for the maritime industry are likely to be further developed in the near future in an attempt to combat cybersecurity threats. For example, cyber-risk management systems must be incorporated by ship-owners and managers by 2021. This might cause companies to create additional procedures for monitoring cybersecurity, which could require additional expenses and/or capital expenditures. The impact of such regulations is difficult to predict at this time.

Pollution Control and Liability Requirements

The IMO has negotiated international conventions that impose liability for pollution in international waters and the territorial waters of the signatories to such conventions. For example, the IMO adopted an International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships’ Ballast Water and Sediments (the “BWM Convention”) in 2004. The BWM Convention entered into force on September 9, 2017. The BWM Convention requires ships to manage their ballast water to remove, render harmless, or avoid the uptake or discharge of new or invasive aquatic organisms and pathogens within ballast water and sediments. The BWM Convention’s implementing regulations call for a phased introduction of mandatory ballast water exchange requirements, to be replaced in time with mandatory concentration limits, and require all ships to carry a ballast water record book and an international ballast water management certificate.

On December 4, 2013, the IMO Assembly passed a resolution revising the application dates of the BWM Convention so that the dates are triggered by the entry into force date and not the dates originally in the BWM Convention. This, in effect, makes all vessels delivered before the entry into force date “existing vessels” and allows for the installation of ballast water
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management systems on such vessels at the first International Oil Pollution Prevention ("IOPP") renewal survey following entry into force of the convention. The MEPC adopted updated guidelines for approval of ballast water management systems (G8) at MEPC 70. At MEPC 71, the schedule regarding the BWM Convention’s implementation dates was also discussed and amendments were introduced to extend the date existing vessels are subject to certain ballast water standards. Those changes were adopted at MEPC 72. Ships over 400 gross tons generally must comply with a “D-1 standard,” requiring the exchange of ballast water only in open seas and away from coastal waters. The “D-2 standard” specifies the maximum amount of viable organisms allowed to be discharged, and compliance dates vary depending on the IOPP renewal dates. Depending on the date of the IOPP renewal survey, existing vessels must comply with the D-2 standard on or after September 8, 2019. For most ships, compliance with the D-2 standard will involve installing on-board systems to treat ballast water and eliminate unwanted organisms. Ballast water management systems, which include systems that make use of chemical, biocides, organisms or biological mechanisms, or which alter the chemical or physical characteristics of the ballast water, must be approved in accordance with IMO Guidelines (Regulation D-3). As of October 13, 2019, MEPC 72’s amendments to the BWM Convention took effect, making the Code for Approval of Ballast Water Management Systems, which governs assessment of ballast water management systems, mandatory rather than permissive, and formalized an implementation schedule for the D-2 standard. Under these amendments, all ships must meet the D-2 standard by September 8, 2024. Costs of compliance with these regulations may be substantial.

Once mid-ocean exchange or ballast water treatment requirements become mandatory under the BWM Convention, the cost of compliance could increase for ocean carriers and may have a material effect on our operations. However, many countries already regulate the discharge of ballast water carried by vessels from country to country to prevent the introduction of invasive and harmful species via such discharges. The U.S., for example, requires vessels entering its waters from another country to conduct mid-ocean ballast exchange, or undertake some alternate measure, and to comply with certain reporting requirements.

The IMO also adopted the International Convention on Civil Liability for Bunker Oil Pollution Damage (the “Bunker Convention”) to impose strict liability on ship owners (including the registered owner, bareboat charterer, manager or operator) for pollution damage in jurisdictional waters of ratifying states caused by discharges of bunker fuel. The Bunker Convention requires registered owners of ships over 1,000 gross tons to maintain insurance for pollution damage in an amount equal to the limits of liability under the applicable national or international limitation regime (but not exceeding the amount calculated in accordance with the LLMC). With respect to non-ratifying states, liability for spills or releases of oil carried as fuel in ship’s bunkers typically is determined by the national or other domestic laws in the jurisdiction where the events or damages occur.

Ships are required to maintain a certificate attesting that they maintain adequate insurance to cover an incident. In jurisdictions, such as the United States where the International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage of 1969, as from time to time amended and replaced by the 1992 protocol, or the Bunker Convention has not been adopted, various legislative schemes or common law govern, and liability is imposed either on the basis of fault or on a strict-liability basis.

Anti-Fouling Requirements

In 2001, the IMO adopted the International Convention on the Control of Harmful Anti-fouling Systems on Ships (the “Anti-fouling Convention”). The Anti-fouling Convention, which entered into force on September 17, 2008, prohibits the use of organotin compound coatings to prevent the attachment of mollusks and other sea life to the hulls of vessels. Vessels of over 400 gross tons engaged in international voyages will also be required to undergo an initial survey before the vessel is put into service or before an International Anti-fouling System Certificate is issued for the first time; and subsequent surveys when the Anti-fouling systems are altered or replaced. We have obtained Anti-fouling System Certificates for all of our vessels that are subject to the Anti-fouling Convention.

Compliance Enforcement

Noncompliance with the ISM Code or other IMO regulations may subject the ship owner or bareboat charterer to increased liability, may lead to decreases in available insurance coverage for affected vessels and may result in the denial of access to, or detention in, some ports. The USCG and European Union authorities have indicated that vessels not in compliance with the ISM Code by applicable deadlines will be prohibited from trading in U.S. and European Union ports, respectively. As of the date of this report, each of our vessels is ISM Code certified. However, there can be no assurance that such certificates will be maintained in the future. The IMO continues to review and introduce new regulations. It is impossible to predict what additional regulations, if any, may be passed by the IMO and what effect, if any, such regulations might have on our operations.

United States Regulations

The U.S. Oil Pollution Act of 1990 and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act
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The U.S. Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (“OPA”) established an extensive regulatory and liability regime for the protection and cleanup of the environment from oil spills. OPA affects all “owners and operators” whose vessels trade or operate within the U.S., its territories and possessions or whose vessels operate in U.S. waters, which includes the U.S.’s territorial sea and its 200 nautical mile exclusive economic zone around the U.S. The U.S. has also enacted the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (“CERCLA”), which applies to the discharge of hazardous substances other than oil, except in limited circumstances, whether on land or at sea. OPA and CERCLA both define “owner and operator” in the case of a vessel as any person owning, operating or chartering by demise, the vessel. Both OPA and CERCLA impact our operations.

Under OPA, vessel owners and operators are “responsible parties” and are jointly, severally and strictly liable (unless the spill results solely from the act or omission of a third party, an act of God or an act of war) for all containment and clean-up costs and other damages arising from discharges or threatened discharges of oil from their vessels, including bunkers (fuel). OPA defines these other damages broadly to include:

(i)           injury to, destruction or loss of, or loss of use of, natural resources and related assessment costs;
(ii)          injury to, or economic losses resulting from, the destruction of real and personal property;
(iii)         loss of subsistence use of natural resources that are injured, destroyed or lost;
(iv)        net loss of taxes, royalties, rents, fees or net profit revenues resulting from injury, destruction or loss of real or personal property, or natural resources;
(v)        lost profits or impairment of earning capacity due to injury, destruction or loss of real or personal property or natural resources; and
(vi)       net cost of increased or additional public services necessitated by removal activities following a discharge of oil, such as protection from fire, safety or health hazards, and loss of subsistence use of natural resources.

OPA contains statutory caps on liability and damages; such caps do not apply to direct cleanup costs. Effective December 21, 2015, the USCG adjusted the limits of OPA liability for non-tank vessels, edible oil tank vessels, and any oil spill response vessels, to the greater of $1,200 per gross ton or $997,100 (subject to periodic adjustment for inflation). These limits of liability do not apply if an incident was proximately caused by the violation of an applicable U.S. federal safety, construction or operating regulation by a responsible party (or its agent, employee or a person acting pursuant to a contractual relationship), or a responsible party's gross negligence or willful misconduct. The limitation on liability similarly does not apply if the responsible party fails or refuses to (i) report the incident as required by law where the responsible party knows or has reason to know of the incident; (ii) reasonably cooperate and assist as requested in connection with oil removal activities; or (iii) without sufficient cause, comply with an order issued under the Federal Water Pollution Act (Section 311 (c), (e)) or the Intervention on the High Seas Act.

CERCLA contains a similar liability regime whereby owners and operators of vessels are liable for cleanup, removal and remedial costs, as well as damages for injury to, or destruction or loss of, natural resources, including the reasonable costs associated with assessing the same, and health assessments or health effects studies. There is no liability if the discharge of a hazardous substance results solely from the act or omission of a third party, an act of God or an act of war. Liability under CERCLA is limited to the greater of $300 per gross ton or $5.0 million for vessels carrying a hazardous substance as cargo and the greater of $300 per gross ton or $500,000 for any other vessel. These limits do not apply (rendering the responsible person liable for the total cost of response and damages) if the release or threat of release of a hazardous substance resulted from willful misconduct or negligence, or the primary cause of the release was a violation of applicable safety, construction or operating standards or regulations. The limitation on liability also does not apply if the responsible person fails or refused to provide all reasonable cooperation and assistance as requested in connection with response activities where the vessel is subject to OPA.

OPA and CERCLA each preserve the right to recover damages under existing law, including maritime tort law. OPA and CERCLA both require owners and operators of vessels to establish and maintain with the USCG evidence of financial responsibility sufficient to meet the maximum amount of liability to which the particular responsible person may be subject. Vessel owners and operators may satisfy their financial responsibility obligations by providing a proof of insurance, a surety bond, qualification as a self-insurer or a guarantee. We comply and plan to comply going forward with the USCG’s financial responsibility regulations by providing applicable certificates of financial responsibility.

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The 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico resulted in additional regulatory initiatives or statutes, including higher liability caps under OPA, new regulations regarding offshore oil and gas drilling, and a pilot inspection program for offshore facilities. However, several of these initiatives and regulations have been or may be revised. For example, the U.S. Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement’s (“BSEE”) revised Production Safety Systems Rule (“PSSR”), effective December 27, 2018, modified and relaxed certain environmental and safety protections under the 2016 PSSR. Additionally, the BSEE amended the Well Control Rule, effective July 15, 2019, which rolled back certain reforms regarding the safety of drilling operations, and the former U.S. President Trump had proposed leasing new sections of U.S. waters to oil and gas companies for offshore drilling. However, the current U.S. President Biden recently signed an executive order blocking new leases for oil and gas drilling in federal waters. The effects of these proposals and changes are currently unknown. Compliance with any new requirements of OPA and future legislation or regulations applicable to the operation of our vessels could impact the cost of our operations and adversely affect our business.

OPA specifically permits individual states to impose their own liability regimes with regard to oil pollution incidents occurring within their boundaries, provided they accept, at a minimum, the levels of liability established under OPA and some states have enacted legislation providing for unlimited liability for oil spills. Many U.S. states that border a navigable waterway have enacted environmental pollution laws that impose strict liability on a person for removal costs and damages resulting from a discharge of oil or a release of a hazardous substance. These laws may be more stringent than U.S. federal law. Moreover, some states have enacted legislation providing for unlimited liability for discharge of pollutants within their waters, although in some cases, states which have enacted this type of legislation have not yet issued implementing regulations defining vessel owners’ responsibilities under these laws. The Company intends to comply with all applicable state regulations in the ports where the Company’s vessels call.

We currently maintain pollution liability coverage insurance in the amount of $1 billion per incident for each of our vessels. If the damages from a catastrophic spill were to exceed our insurance coverage, it could have an adverse effect on our business and results of operation.

Other United States Environmental Initiatives

The U.S. Clean Air Act of 1970 (including its amendments of 1977 and 1990) (“CAA”) requires the EPA to promulgate standards applicable to emissions of volatile organic compounds and other air contaminants. The CAA requires states to adopt State Implementation Plans ("SIPs"), some of which regulate emissions resulting from vessel loading and unloading operations which may affect our vessels.

The U.S. Clean Water Act (“CWA”) prohibits the discharge of oil, hazardous substances and ballast water in U.S. navigable waters unless authorized by a duly-issued permit or exemption, and imposes strict liability in the form of penalties for any unauthorized discharges. The CWA also imposes substantial liability for the costs of removal, remediation and damages and complements the remedies available under OPA and CERCLA. In 2015, the EPA expanded the definition of “waters of the United States” (“WOTUS”), thereby expanding federal authority under the CWA. Following litigation on the revised WOTUS rule, in December 2018, the EPA and Department of the Army proposed a revised, limited definition of “waters of the United States.” The proposed rule was published in the Federal Register on February 14, 2019 and was subject to public comment. On October 22, 2019, the agencies published a final rule repealing the 2015 Rule defining “waters of the United States” and recodified the regulatory text that existed prior to 2015 Rule. The final rule became effective on December 23, 2019. On January 23, 2020, the EPA published the “Navigable Waters Protection Rule,” which replaces the rule published on October 22, 2019, and redefines “waters of the United States.” The effect of this rule is currently unknown.

The EPA and the USCG have also enacted rules relating to ballast water discharge, compliance with which requires the installation of equipment on our vessels to treat ballast water before it is discharged or the implementation of other port facility disposal arrangements or procedures at potentially substantial costs, and/or otherwise restrict our vessels from entering U.S. Waters. 

The EPA will regulate these ballast water discharges and other discharges incidental to the normal operation of certain vessels within United States waters pursuant to the Vessel Incidental Discharge Act (“VIDA”), which was signed into law on December 4, 2018 and replaces the 2013 Vessel General Permit (“VGP”) program (which authorizes discharges incidental to operations of commercial vessels and contains numeric ballast water discharge limits for most vessels to reduce the risk of invasive species in U.S. waters, stringent requirements for exhaust gas scrubbers, and requirements for the use of environmentally acceptable lubricants) and current Coast Guard ballast water management regulations adopted under the U.S. National Invasive Species Act (“NISA”), such as mid-ocean ballast exchange programs and installation of approved USCG technology for all vessels equipped with ballast water tanks bound for U.S. ports or entering U.S. waters. VIDA establishes a new framework for the regulation of vessel incidental discharges under Clean Water Act ("CWA"), requires the EPA to develop
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performance standards for those discharges within two years of enactment, and requires the U.S. Coast Guard to develop implementation, compliance, and enforcement regulations within two years of EPA’s promulgation of standards. Under VIDA, all provisions of the 2013 VGP and USCG regulations regarding ballast water treatment remain in force and effect until the EPA and U.S. Coast Guard regulations are finalized. Non-military, non-recreational vessels greater than 79 feet in length must continue to comply with the requirements of the VGP, including submission of a Notice of Intent (“NOI”) or retention of a PARI form and submission of annual reports. We have submitted NOIs for our vessels where required. Compliance with the EPA, U.S. Coast Guard and state regulations could require the installation of ballast water treatment equipment on our vessels or the implementation of other port facility disposal procedures at potentially substantial cost, or may otherwise restrict our vessels from entering U.S. waters.

European Union Regulations

In October 2009, the European Union amended a directive to impose criminal sanctions for illicit ship-source discharges of polluting substances, including minor discharges, if committed with intent, recklessly or with serious negligence and the discharges individually or in the aggregate result in deterioration of the quality of water. Aiding and abetting the discharge of a polluting substance may also lead to criminal penalties. The directive applies to all types of vessels, irrespective of their flag, but certain exceptions apply to warships or where human safety or that of the ship is in danger. Criminal liability for pollution may result in substantial penalties or fines and increased civil liability claims. Regulation (EU) 2015/757 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2015 (amending EU Directive 2009/16/EC) governs the monitoring, reporting and verification of carbon dioxide emissions from maritime transport, and, subject to some exclusions, requires companies with ships over 5,000 gross tonnage to monitor and report carbon dioxide emissions annually, which may cause us to incur additional expenses.

The European Union has adopted several regulations and directives requiring, among other things, more frequent inspections of high-risk ships, as determined by type, age, and flag as well as the number of times the ship has been detained. The European Union also adopted and extended a ban on substandard ships and enacted a minimum ban period and a definitive ban for repeated offenses. The regulation also provided the European Union with greater authority and control over classification societies, by imposing more requirements on classification societies and providing for fines or penalty payments for organizations that failed to comply. Furthermore, the EU has implemented regulations requiring vessels to use reduced sulfur content fuel for their main and auxiliary engines. The EU Directive 2005/33/EC (amending Directive 1999/32/EC) introduced requirements parallel to those in Annex VI relating to the sulfur content of marine fuels. In addition, the EU imposed a 0.1% maximum sulfur requirement for fuel used by ships at berth in the Baltic, the North Sea and the English Channel (the so called “SOx-Emission Control Area”). As of January 2020, EU member states will also have to ensure that ships in all EU waters, except the SOx-Emission Control Area, use fuels with a 0.5% maximum sulfur content.

On September 15, 2020, the European Parliament voted to include greenhouse gas emissions from the maritime sector in the European Union’s carbon market from 2022. This will require shipowners to buy permits to cover these emissions. Contingent on another formal approval vote, specific regulations are forthcoming and are expected to be proposed by 2021.

International Labour Organization

The International Labour Organization (the “ILO”) is a specialized agency of the UN that has adopted the Maritime Labor Convention 2006 (“MLC 2006”). A Maritime Labor Certificate and a Declaration of Maritime Labor Compliance is required to ensure compliance with the MLC 2006 for all ships that are 500 gross tonnage or over and are either engaged in international voyages or flying the flag of a Member and operating from a port, or between ports, in another country. We believe that all our vessels are in substantial compliance with and are certified to meet MLC 2006.

Greenhouse Gas Regulation

Currently, the emissions of greenhouse gases from international shipping are not subject to the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, which entered into force in 2005 and pursuant to which adopting countries have been required to implement national programs to reduce greenhouse gas emissions with targets extended through 2020. International negotiations are continuing with respect to a successor to the Kyoto Protocol, and restrictions on shipping emissions may be included in any new treaty. In December 2009, more than 27 nations, including the U.S. and China, signed the Copenhagen Accord, which includes a non-binding commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Paris resulted in the Paris Agreement, which entered into force on November 4, 2016 and does not directly limit greenhouse gas emissions from ships. The U.S. initially entered into the agreement, but on June 1, 2017, the U.S. President announced that the United States intends to withdraw from the Paris Agreement, which provides for a
38


four-year exit process, meaning that the earliest possible effective withdrawal date cannot be before November 4, 2020. The timing and effect of such action has yet to be determined.

At MEPC 70 and MEPC 71, a draft outline of the structure of the initial strategy for developing a comprehensive IMO strategy on reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from ships was approved. In accordance with this roadmap, in April 2018, nations at the MEPC 72 adopted an initial strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from ships. The initial strategy identifies “levels of ambition” to reducing greenhouse gas emissions, including (1) decreasing the carbon intensity from ships through implementation of further phases of the EEDI for new ships; (2) reducing carbon dioxide emissions per transport work, as an average across international shipping, by at least 40% by 2030, pursuing efforts towards 70% by 2050, compared to 2008 emission levels; and (3) reducing the total annual greenhouse emissions by at least 50% by 2050 compared to 2008 while pursuing efforts towards phasing them out entirely. The initial strategy notes that technological innovation, alternative fuels and/or energy sources for international shipping will be integral to achieve the overall ambition. These regulations could cause us to incur additional substantial expenses.

The EU made a unilateral commitment to reduce overall greenhouse gas emissions from its member states from 20% of 1990 levels by 2020. The EU also committed to reduce its emissions by 20% under the Kyoto Protocol’s second period from 2013 to 2020. Starting in January 2018, large ships over 5,000 gross tonnage calling at EU ports are required to collect and publish data on carbon dioxide emissions and other information. As previously discussed, regulations relating to the inclusion of greenhouse gas emissions from the maritime sector in the European Union’s carbon market are also forthcoming.

In the United States, the EPA issued a finding that greenhouse gases endanger the public health and safety, adopted regulations to limit greenhouse gas emissions from certain mobile sources, and proposed regulations to limit greenhouse gas emissions from large stationary sources. However, in March 2017, the U.S. President signed an executive order to review and possibly eliminate the EPA’s plan to cut greenhouse gas emissions, and in August 2019, the Administration announced plans to weaken regulations for methane emissions. The EPA or individual U.S. states could enact environmental regulations that would affect our operations.

Any passage of climate control legislation or other regulatory initiatives by the IMO, the EU, the U.S. or other countries where we operate, or any treaty adopted at the international level to succeed the Kyoto Protocol or Paris Agreement, that restricts emissions of greenhouse gases could require us to make significant financial expenditures which we cannot predict with certainty at this time. Even in the absence of climate control legislation, our business may be indirectly affected to the extent that climate change may result in sea level changes or certain weather events.

Vessel Security Regulations

Since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 in the United States, there have been a variety of initiatives intended to enhance vessel security such as the MTSA. To implement certain portions of the MTSA, the USCG issued regulations requiring the implementation of certain security requirements aboard vessels operating in waters subject to the jurisdiction of the United States and at certain ports and facilities, some of which are regulated by the EPA.

Similarly, Chapter XI-2 of the SOLAS Convention imposes detailed security obligations on vessels and port authorities and mandates compliance with the ISPS Code. The ISPS Code is designed to enhance the security of ports and ships against terrorism. To trade internationally, a vessel must attain an International Ship Security Certificate (“ISSC”) from a recognized security organization approved by the vessel’s flag state. Ships operating without a valid certificate may be detained, expelled from, or refused entry at port until they obtain an ISSC. The various requirements, some of which are found in the SOLAS Convention, include, for example, on-board installation of automatic identification systems to provide a means for the automatic transmission of safety-related information from among similarly equipped ships and shore stations, including information on a ship’s identity, position, course, speed and navigational status; on-board installation of ship security alert systems, which do not sound on the vessel but only alert the authorities on shore; the development of vessel security plans; ship identification number to be permanently marked on a vessel’s hull; a continuous synopsis record kept onboard showing a vessel's history including the name of the ship, the state whose flag the ship is entitled to fly, the date on which the ship was registered with that state, the ship's identification number, the port at which the ship is registered and the name of the registered owner(s) and their registered address; and compliance with flag state security certification requirements.

The USCG regulations, intended to align with international maritime security standards, exempt non-U.S. vessels from MTSA vessel security measures, provided such vessels have on board a valid ISSC that attests to the vessel’s compliance with the SOLAS Convention security requirements and the ISPS Code. Future security measures could have a significant financial impact on us. We intend to comply with the various security measures addressed by MTSA, the SOLAS Convention and the ISPS Code.
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The cost of vessel security measures has also been affected by the escalation in the frequency of acts of piracy against ships, notably off the coast of Somalia, including the Gulf of Aden and Arabian Sea area. Substantial loss of revenue and other costs may be incurred as a result of detention of a vessel or additional security measures, and the risk of uninsured losses could significantly affect our business. Costs are incurred in taking additional security measures in accordance with Best Management Practices to Deter Piracy, notably those contained in the BMP4 industry standard.

Inspection by Classification Societies

The hull and machinery of every commercial vessel must be classed by a classification society authorized by its country of registry. The classification society certifies that a vessel is safe and seaworthy in accordance with the applicable rules and regulations of the country of registry of the vessel and SOLAS. Most insurance underwriters make it a condition for insurance coverage and lending that a vessel be certified “in class” by a classification society which is a member of the International Association of Classification Societies, the IACS. The IACS has adopted harmonized Common Structural Rules (the "Rules"), which apply to oil tankers and bulk carriers contracted for construction on or after July 1, 2015. The Rules attempt to create a level of consistency between IACS Societies. All of our vessels are certified as being “in class” by all the applicable Classification Societies (e.g., American Bureau of Shipping, Lloyd's Register of Shipping).

A vessel must undergo annual surveys, intermediate surveys, drydockings and special surveys. In lieu of a special survey, a vessel’s machinery may be on a continuous survey cycle, under which the machinery would be surveyed periodically over a five-year period. Every vessel is also required to be drydocked every 30 to 36 months for inspection of the underwater parts of the vessel. If any vessel does not maintain its class and/or fails any annual survey, intermediate survey, drydocking or special survey, the vessel will be unable to carry cargo between ports and will be unemployable and uninsurable which could cause us to be in violation of certain covenants in our loan agreements. Any such inability to carry cargo or be employed, or any such violation of covenants, could have a material adverse impact on our financial condition and results of operations.

Risk of Loss and Liability Insurance

General

The operation of any cargo vessel includes risks such as mechanical failure, physical damage, collision, property loss, cargo loss or damage and business interruption due to political circumstances in foreign countries, piracy incidents, hostilities and labor strikes. In addition, there is always an inherent possibility of marine disaster, including oil spills and other environmental mishaps, and the liabilities arising from owning and operating vessels in international trade. OPA, which imposes virtually unlimited liability upon shipowners, operators and bareboat charterers of any vessel trading in the exclusive economic zone of the United States for certain oil pollution accidents in the United States, has made liability insurance more expensive for shipowners and operators trading in the United States market. We carry insurance coverage as customary in the shipping industry. However, not all risks can be insured, specific claims may be rejected, and we might not be always able to obtain adequate insurance coverage at reasonable rates.

Marine Insurance

We procure hull and machinery insurance, protection and indemnity insurance, which includes environmental damage and pollution insurance and war risk insurance and freight, demurrage and defense insurance for our fleet.

Protection and Indemnity Insurance

Protection and indemnity insurance is provided by mutual protection and indemnity associations ("P&I Associations"), and covers our third-party liabilities in connection with our shipping activities. This includes third-party liability and other related expenses of injury or death of crew, passengers and other third parties, loss or damage to cargo, claims arising from collisions with other vessels, damage to other third-party property, pollution arising from oil or other substances, and salvage, towing and other related costs, including wreck removal. Protection and indemnity insurance is a form of mutual indemnity insurance, extended by protection and indemnity mutual associations (such associations, “clubs”).

Our current protection and indemnity insurance coverage for pollution is $1 billion per vessel per incident. The 13 P&I Associations that comprise the International Group insure approximately 90% of the world’s commercial tonnage and have entered into a pooling agreement to reinsure each association’s liabilities. The International Group’s website states that the Pool provides a mechanism for sharing all claims in excess of US$ 10 million up to, currently, approximately US$ 8.2 billion. As a member of a P&I Association, which is a member of the International Group, we are subject to calls payable to the associations
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based on our claim records as well as the claim records of all other members of the individual associations and members of the shipping pool of P&I Associations comprising the International Group.

C.  ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE

See Exhibit 8.1 for a list of our significant subsidiaries.

D.  PROPERTY, PLANT AND EQUIPMENT

The following table summarizes key information about our fleet as of March 18, 2021:
Vessel BuiltDWTFlag
Type of Employment(1)
Newcastlemax - Owned
Golden Gayle2011206,565MISpot market
Golden Scape2016211,112HKTime charter (expires June 2021)
Golden Swift2016211,112HKSpot market
628,789
Capesize - Owned
Golden Feng2009169,232MISpot market with RSA
Golden Shui2009169,333MISpot market with RSA
Golden Myrtalia2011177,979MISpot market with RSA
Golden Anastasia2014179,189MISpot market with RSA
Golden Houston2014181,214MISpot market with RSA
Golden Kaki2014180,560MISpot market with RSA
KSL Salvador2014180,958HKIndex linked time charter
KSL San Francisco2014181,066HKIndex linked time charter
KSL Santiago2014181,020HKSpot market with RSA
KSL Santos2014181,055HKSpot market with RSA
KSL Sapporo2014180,960HKSpot market with RSA
KSL Seattle2014181,015HKSpot market with RSA
KSL Singapore2014181,062HKIndex linked time charter
KSL Sydney2014181,009HKSpot market with RSA
Golden Amreen2015179,337MISpot market with RSA
Golden Aso2015182,472HKSpot market with RSA
Golden Finsbury2015182,418HKSpot market with RSA
Golden Kathrine2015182,486HKSpot market
KSL Sakura2015181,062HKIndex linked time charter
KSL Seoul2015181,010HKSpot market with RSA
KSL Seville2015181,003HKSpot market with RSA
KSL Stockholm2015181,043HKIndex linked time charter
Golden Barnet2016180,355HKIndex linked time charter
Golden Behike2016180,491MISpot market with RSA
Golden Bexley2016180,228HKIndex linked time charter
Golden Fulham2016182,610HKIndex linked time charter
Golden Monterrey2016180,491MISpot market with RSA
Golden Nimbus2017180,504MIIndex linked time charter
Golden Savannah2017181,044HKIndex linked time charter
Golden Surabaya2017181,046HKIndex linked time charter
Golden Arcus2018180,478MIIndex linked time charter
Golden Calvus2018180,521MIIndex linked time charter
Golden Cirrus2018180,487MIIndex linked time charter
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Golden Cumulus2018180,499MIIndex linked time charter
Golden Incus2018180,511MIIndex linked time charter
6,305,748
Capesize - Operating Lease - Related Party, SFL
KSL China2013179,109MIIndex linked time charter
179,109
Capesize - Finance Lease - Related Party, SFL
Battersea2009169,500MISpot market with RSA
Belgravia2009169,500MISpot market with RSA
Golden Magnum2009179,788HKSpot market with RSA
Golden Beijing2010176,000HKSpot market with RSA
Golden Future2010176,000HKSpot market with RSA
Golden Zhejiang2010175,834HKSpot market with RSA
Golden Zhoushan2011175,834HKSpot market with RSA
1,222,456
Panamax - Operating Lease - Unrelated Third Party
Admiral Schmidt2019104,550BASpot market
Vitus Bering2019104,550BASpot market
209,100
Panamax - Owned
Golden Shea200776,939MISpot market
Golden Ice200875,500HKSpot market
Golden Opportunity200875,750HKSpot market
Golden Saguenay200875,500HKSpot market
Golden Strength200975,500HKSpot market
Golden Empress201079,463HKTime charter (expires December 2021)
Golden Endeavour201079,454HKSpot market
Golden Arion201182,188MISpot market
Golden Endurer201179,474HKSpot market
Golden Enterprise201179,463HKSpot market
Golden Ioanari201182,188MISpot market
Golden Jake201182,188MISpot market
Golden Suek201174,849HKSpot market
Golden Daisy201281,507MISpot market
Golden Ginger201281,487MISpot market
Golden Keen201281,586MISpot market
Golden Rose201281,585MISpot market
Golden Bull201275,000HKTime charter (expires June 2021)
Golden Brilliant201374,500HKSpot market
Golden Diamond201374,186HKSpot market
Golden Pearl201374,186HKTime charter (expires August 2023)
Golden Sue201384,943MITime charter (expires April 2021)
Golden Deb201484,943MITime charter (expires May 2021)
Golden Ruby201474,052HKSpot market
Golden Kennedy201583,789MITime charter (expires June 2021)
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Golden Amber201774,500MISpot market
Golden Opal201774,231MISpot market
2,118,951
Ultramax - Owned
Golden Cecilie201560,263HKSpot market with RSA
Golden Cathrine201560,000HKSpot market with RSA
120,263
Supramax - Operating Lease, Third party
Golden Hawk201558,000PANSpot market with RSA

1.RSA: Revenue sharing agreement or pool arrangement
2.This charterparty contains a minimum (floor) and maximum (ceiling) rate structure

Key to Flags:
MI – Marshall Islands, HK – Hong Kong, PAN - Panama, BA - Bahamas.

Other than our interests in the vessels described above, we do not own or lease any other material physical properties, except for related party leases of our office space in Singapore and in Oslo.

In February 2021, we entered into the Heads of Agreements to acquire eighteen vessels, as described under "Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects - B. Liquidity and Capital Resources - Subsequent and Other Events". Subject to definitive documentation and other customary closing conditions we will acquire:

Vessel TypeVessel nameYear BuiltDwtFlag
NewcastlemaxGolden Coral2019208,132Marshall Island
NewcastlemaxGolden Champion2019208,391Marshall Island
NewcastlemaxGolden Comfort2020208,000Marshall Island
NewcastlemaxGolden Courage2020208,395Marshall Island
NewcastlemaxGolden Competence2020207,397Marshall Island
NewcastlemaxGolden Confidence2020207,988Marshall Island
NewcastlemaxGolden Skies2020210,897Marshall Island
NewcastlemaxGolden Spirit2020210,866Marshall Island
NewcastlemaxGolden Saint2020211,138Marshall Island
NewcastlemaxGolden Spray2021208,000Marshall Island
PanamaxGolden Fortune202081,600Marshall Island
PanamaxGolden Forward202081,130Marshall Island
PanamaxGolden Friend202081,206Marshall Island
PanamaxGolden Fellow202081,135Marshall Island
PanamaxGolden Frost202080,559Marshall Island
PanamaxGolden Freeze202181,000Marshall Island
PanamaxGolden Fast202181,000Marshall Island
PanamaxGolden Furious202181,000Marshall Island

ITEM 4A. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

None.

ITEM 5.  OPERATING AND FINANCIAL REVIEW AND PROSPECTS

A. OPERATING RESULTS

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Overview

The following discussion should be read in conjunction with "Item 3. Key Information - A. Selected Financial Data", "Item 4. Information on the Company" and the audited Consolidated Financial Statements and Notes thereto included herein.

As of December 31, 2020, we owned 67 dry bulk vessels. In addition, we had 11 vessels chartered-in (of which seven and one are chartered in on finance leases and operating leases, respectively from SFL and three chartered in on operating leases from unrelated third parties. Our owned vessels are owned and operated by one of our subsidiaries and are flagged either in the Marshall Islands, Hong Kong, Bahamas or Panama. As of December 31, 2020, eight of our vessels were chartered-out on fixed rate time charters, 18 of our vessels were chartered out on index linked rate time charters, 52 vessels operated in the spot market, of which 26 vessels participated in RSAs.

Fleet Changes

Refer to "Item 4. Information on the Company - A. History and Development of the Company" for a discussion on acquisitions and disposals of vessels during the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019, and 2018. A summary of the changes in the vessels that we own and chartered in under long term operating and finance leases for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018 is summarized below.
 202020192018
Newcastlemax
At start of period3 
Acquisitions and newbuilding deliveries — — 
At end of period3 
Capesize
At start of period43 43 37 
Acquisitions and newbuilding deliveries  — a
Disposals  — — 
Chartered in/owned by joint venture — — 
At end of period43 43 43 
Panamax
At start of period30 28 29 
Acquisitions and newbuilding deliveries — — 
Disposals (1)d— (1)b
Chartered in/owned by joint venture c— 
At end of period29 30 28 
Ultramax
At start of period3 
Acquisitions and newbuilding deliveries — — 
Disposals  — — 
At end of period3 
Total
At start of period79 77 72 
Acquisitions and newbuilding deliveries — 
Disposals (1)— (1)
Chartered in/owned by joint venture — 
78 79 77 

a.(i) Delivery of five newbuildings (Golden Arcus, Golden Cirrus, Golden Cumulus, Golden Incus and Golden Calvus) and (ii) delivery of one vessel (Golden Monterrey) acquired from affiliates of Hemen.
b.Disposal of one vessel (Golden Eminence) to an unrelated third party.
c.Time charter-in of two vessels (Vitus Bering and Admiral Schmidt) from an unrelated third party.
d.Redelivery of one vessel (Golden Eclipse) following the expiration of the lease in April 2020.

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Summary of Fleet Employment

As discussed below, as at December 31, 2020, our vessels operated under time charters or voyage charters.

A time charter agreement is a contract entered into by an owner and a charterer whereby the charterer is entitled to the use of a vessel for a specific period of time for a specified daily fixed or index-linked rate of hire. Under a time charter agreement, voyage costs, such as bunker fuel and port charges, are borne and paid by the charterer. In the time charter market, rates vary depending on the length of the charter period and vessel specific factors such as age, speed and fuel consumption. An index-linked rate usually refers to freight rate indices issued by the Baltic Exchange, such as the Baltic Capesize Index and the Baltic Panamax Index. These rates are based on actual charter hire rates under charter entered into by market participants, as well as daily assessments provided to the Baltic Exchange by a panel of major shipbrokers.

A voyage or spot charter agreement is a contract entered into by an owner and a charterer whereby a charterer is entitled to the use of a vessel to transport commodities between specified geographical locations at a specified freight rate per ton. Under voyage charter agreements, voyage costs are borne and paid by the owner. In the voyage charter market, rates are also influenced by cargo size, commodity, port dues and canal transit fees, as well as delivery and redelivery regions. In general, a larger cargo size is quoted at a lower rate per ton than a smaller cargo size. Routes with costly ports or canals generally command higher rates than routes with low port dues and no canals to transit. Voyages with a load port within a region that includes ports where vessels usually discharge cargo or a discharge port within a region with ports where vessels load cargo are generally quoted at lower rates, because such voyages generally increase vessel utilization by reducing the unloaded portion (or ballast leg) that is included in the calculation of the return charter to a loading area.

Several of our vessels may trade under revenue sharing arrangements or pools that are primarily exposed to the spot market. As of December 31, 2020, we included 23 of our Capesize vessels in the RSA with CCL and our three Ultramax vessels traded in C Transport Holding Ltd's pool for Supramax vessels.

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 As of December 31,
 202020192018
 Number of vesselsPercentage of fleetNumber of vesselsPercentage of fleetNumber of vesselsPercentage of fleet
Newcastlemax
Spot 66.7 %33.3 %33.3 %
Spot with RSA (1)
— — %33.3 %— — %
Time charter33.3 %— — %33.3 %
Index linked time charter— — %33.3 %33.3 %
100.0 %